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[en] Outline: - The Lead cooled Fast Reactors in GIF: SSTAR(USA) Small-sized, battery type reactor with long core life; BREST-OD-300(Russia) Medium-sized, 'pools-in-loop' type reactor with associated closed fuel cycle facilities; ELFR(Europe) Large-sized, integral type reactor for closing of the fuel cyle. - Activities of the GIF LFR provisional SSC (pSSC). - Status of LFR R&D activities in MoU Countries/Entities: Japan, Russian Federation, Republic of Korea, USA, China and Euratom. - Development of the GIF LFR Safety Design Criteria. Outlook on LFR SDC: Work started during 2014, and the present report is the result of discussions among members of the LFR pSSC, benefiting greatly from review and consultations with the GIF RSWG, ANL, IRSN and other partners of the Euratom collaborative project ARCADIA; LFR SDC Report has been updated following the IAEA SSR 2/1 (rev. 1) as well as the IAEA Safety Glossary (2018); The report endorsed by RSWG in February 2021 and approved by the GIF Experts Group in March 2021; Planned to be followed by reviews by external partners (IAEA, WGSAR); Further steps will include the development of detailed Safety Design Guidelines for selected topics.
[en] Nuclear reactors of the third generation are being fired up around the world. In particular, the Taishan 1 and 2 EPRs have recently been connected to China's electricity grid. Meanwhile, Generation IV Forum, which groups fourteen countries, has been conducting studies on reactors of the fourth generation since 2000. The intent is to identify the best solutions for addressing the many issues related energy and the climate that have arisen since the start of the century. For example, fissile uranium (U-235) might become scarce by the century's end. After presenting the technology in the pipeline, focus is shifted to the work conducted under the ASTRID program and to the conditions, under this program, for rolling out sodium-cooled fast reactors in France. (author)
[en] Existing NESs, which are mainly based on TRs operating in a once through cycle, will continue to represent the main contribution to nuclear energy production for at least several decades. As many national and international studies have shown, major innovations in reactor and NFC technologies are needed in order to achieve sustainable nuclear energy development. New reactors, nuclear fuels and fuel cycle technologies are under development and are being demonstrated worldwide. In these conditions, the evaluation of the status, prospects, benefits and risks associated with innovative technologies is very important. The results of such an evaluation could be useful not only for countries engaged in nuclear power development, but also for newcomer countries evaluating their potential to start a nuclear programme. This case study, performed by the team of Romanian experts from RATEN ICN Pitesti, proposes to apply the KIND approach to evaluate evolutionary and INES technologies comparatively, based on specific KIs. The analyses performed address the status, prospects, benefits and risks related to the development of these technologies, taking into consideration country specifics. The general and specific goals of the case study are in agreement with the KIND objectives.
[en] Highlights: • Pu and TRU composition when recycled in FRs was obtained by 3D burnup simulating. • Sensitivity of fuel out-of-pile time and actinides recovery ratio were studied. • The installed capacity and HLW generation were sensitive to the key parameters. • The recommended target for the key parameters in future R&D was proposed. - Abstract: The sustainable development of nuclear energy depends on maximization of uranium utilization and minimization of waste produced. Sensitivity analysis was made on the influence of out-of-pile residence time and the actinides recovery ratio on nuclear energy system performance; a series of recommended values were given; the effect of closed fuel cycle on the reduction of high-level waste(HLW) was analyzed. The following conclusions were drawn: 1) when Pu or transuranics(TRU) multi-cycled in fast reactors(FRs), the composition would reach equilibrium; for the referenced CFR1000, the fissile Pu took an equilibrium fraction of 70%, and the minor actinides(MA) took an equilibrium fraction of 3%(in TRU recycle); 2) the installed FRs capacity was sensitive to out-of-pile residence time and recovery ratio; the HLW generation was only sensitive to recovery ratio; the recommended value was, out-of-pile time be no more than 5a and actinides recovery ratio be no less than 99.9%; 3) the synergistic development of pressurized water reactors(PWRs) and FRs could, not only improve uranium utilization, but also effectively reduce HLW generation; compared with PWRs with once-through cycle, FR with closed-fuel-cycle could reduce the long-term radioactive toxicity of HLW to 1/5–1/6 for Pu recycle and 1/7–1/8 for TRU recycle (both with 99.9% recovery).
[en] This book proposes a comprehensive overview of the technology of pressurized water reactors since its origin in the USA (creation of atomic engines for naval propulsion) until the last developments in the field of civilian energy production, notably in France with the 58 reactors operated by EDF, and the EPR. After a presentation of this history (first naval reactors in the USA, France and USSR, reactors in the USA, Belgium, Italy, England, USSR, France, history and technology of plutonium recycling, description of the EPR), the different chapters propose detailed presentations of the different parts and components: the reactor building and the related buildings, the primary circuit (design, secondary heating, temperature, pressure, flow rate, core thermal power, chemistry, activity, pumps, pressurizer, steam generators, regulation), the vessel and its components, the core and the reactor fuel, the secondary circuit, the other main circuits (volume and chemical control, water and boron supply, cooling of the stopped reactor, safety injection, intermediate cooling, nuclear sampling, steam, atmospheric discharge, water supply and emergency supply for the team generators, enclosure spraying, pool refrigeration, effluent processing, venting, depression generation, demineralized water production, iced water, compressed air, control command system), and the turbo-generator unit and electricity production
[en] Russia is a recognized world leader in the development of fast reactor technology and a closed nuclear fuel cycle. The technology of fast sodium reactors has been successfully demonstrated and entered the commercialization phase. The paper considers options for entering the international markets in the near term of Russian technologies of fast reactors and a closed nuclear fuel cycle as the main export product of the Russian nuclear power industry
[ru]Россия является признанным мировым лидером в разработке технологий быстрых реакторов и замкнутого ядерного топливного цикла. Технология быстрых натриевых реакторов успешно продемонстрирована и вступила в этап коммерциализации. В работе рассматриваются варианты выхода на международные рынки в ближнесрочной перспективе российских технологий быстрых реакторов и замкнутого ядерного топливного цикла в качестве главного экспортного продукта российской ядерно-энергетической отрасли
[en] Thorium represents a valuable fuel alternative to uranium, but since it has no fissile isotopes, it is necessary to foresee using a small amount of fissile material to initiate the chain reaction. Many studies (related to reactor physics and fuel performance) have been performed worldwide for Th+U, Th+Pu and even Th+Minor Actinides. In Romania, given the safeguard limitations, the only considered fissile material is U-235. The thorium fuel cycles in CANDU nuclear reactors maintain their strategic interest as they ensure a long-term resources availability, especially for those countries possessing large thorium reserves but limited uranium resources. Again, driven by safeguard limitations, the ‘once-through’ thorium cycle without reprocessing was taken into account. This report reviews the analytical and experimental work performed at Institute of Nuclear Reactor (INR) concerning the nuclear fuel containing mixed oxide of thorium and uranium to be used in existing CANDU reactors. A major request was that the CANDU power plant design, especially the reactor core design, should not be modified in order to comply with using the advanced fuel bundles, excepting for the fuel bundle itself. Based on previous studies performed in Canada, China, India and Korea, the fuel bundle considered for hosting mixed oxide of thorium and uranium would be T43, a 43 elements bundle.