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[en] This paper gathers together the original answers to the questionnaire (forming INFCE/DEP./WG4-28) received during March to July 1978 from the following countries: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Federal Republic, India, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Philippines, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, U.S.A. Later updating or amendment by the country concerned has been taken into account in the summary (INFCE/DEP./WG4-30)
[en] The feasibility of the thermal plutonium recycle system has been demonstrated in the German Federal Republic. The German concept includes the co-location of reprocessing and MOX fabrication plants. Transport will be limited to that of fuel elements between the reactors and the fuel cycle centre. Journey times in the Federal Republic will be short (one day). IAEA safeguards goals will be fulfilled with the same measures as are currently applied to uranium oxide fuel elements
[en] The paper describes the programme of nuclear power growth and plutonium production in Sweden up to 1990. Justification is given for commercial plutonium recycling in thermal power reactors starting in 1980. Review of experimental programme is presented. (author)
[en] Summary: • Development of the next version of G4ECONS is progressing well; • Comparable results obtained from the benchmarking of G4ECONS, HEEP and H2A for hydrogen production; • Completed benchmarking G4ECONS with NEST in collaboration with IAEA: –Once-through SCWR; – Two fast reactors with closed fuel cycle.
[en] The report summarizes the results of discussions at the Consultants' Meeting on Assessment of Nuclear Data Needs for Thorium and other Advanced Cycles. The requirements to the nuclear data for power systems with Th-U fuel cycles are reviewed and updated. The meeting participants recommended to the IAEA Nuclear Data Section to organize the Co-ordinated Research Project 'Nuclear Data for Thorium-Uranium Fuel Cycle' to co-ordinate the activity on national programmes for improvement of the data in accordance with the new requirements. (author)
[en] This paper, which also appears as an Appendix to the final Working Group 4 report, forms part of the overall economic assessment of reprocessing. The indicative national position and illustrative ''phase diagram'' for the Federal Republic of Germany is presented. Advantages to be gained from the recycling of plutonium in thermal reactors are identified and it is concluded that many of these are not explicitly taken into account in the ''phase diagram''. Under the conditions pertaining in the Federal Republic of Germany thermal recycle will be economic under present day uranium prices. On the other hand the fast breeder reactor might become commercially economic around the year 2000
[en] Full text: Over millennia, Man has developed technology, and this technology has made possible a great increase in population, which in return finds technology indispensable. The progress in technology has been accompanied by a depletion in natural resource and pollution. The doubling of the population required l,650 years from the Year AD One, but now takes a mere 45 years. Consumption-based economies in modern times also mean that each person consumes ever so many things in order to live, and massive production and distribution networks lead inevitably to pollution and environmental devastation. The future of mankind is in jeopardy and nature has only a limited capacity to absorb and handle this extra burden of pollution. Fortunately, nuclear energy can be deployed to mitigate and even to reverse the global trend toward destruction of the environment. Issues are addressed under the headings of what is known, what should be done now and for the future. Our first priority should be training of manpower to make effective use of the nuclear knowledge which is already abundantly available. Secondly we must push for research and development in all phases of the nuclear program. Our third priority must be to develop a desalination reactor and to produce cheap and abundant nuclear hydrogen and confront the environmental issue with a high-temperature reactor. IAEA's INPRO and U.S.-led Gen lV programs together with associated fuel cycle schemes must be encouraged with a view towards eventually developing economic, reliable and proliferation-resistant reactors and fuels. Finally, the nuclear community must strive to develop a commercial transmutation reactor to incinerate long-lived radioactive nuclides. (author)
[en] The strategy adopted in India is to utilize the plutonium produced in CANDU type reactors in the fast breeders when these become available. In fact, a 40 MW(t) Fast Breeder Reactor is under construction at the Reactor Research Centre near Madras to gain experience with the sodium cooled fast reactors
[en] The Plutonium Utilization Program (PUP) of the USAEC is being carried out by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory of Battelle Memorial Institute. The basic mission of the program has been to develop the- base technology necessary for the implementation of plutonium recycle in commercial power reactors. Hie program scope has been quite broad in the past, including plutonium fuels development, chemical reprocessing studies, physics of plutonium-enriched systems, and technical and economic optimization studies of plutonium-enriched reactors. More recently, the major efforts have been directed toward solving the immediate problems of utilizing plutonium as enrichment in refueling cycles in the present generation of H2O moderated and cooled power reactors. This report summarizes the current and planned program activities. Another report prepared for the panel meeting ''Results from USAEC Plutonium Utilization Program Conducted by Battelle-Northwest'' presents detailed results and conclusions from the programs and therefore these will not be presented here. The major emphasis of the program are on physics and fuels developments.
[en] As the plutonium content in mixed oxide fuels for thermal reactors is relatively small, only limited changes are expected in their behaviour as compared to uranium fuels. This assumption is being confirmed by experiments initiated by BELGONUCLEAIRE ten years ago on mixed oxide fuels, first with stainless steel cladding and later on with Zircaloy cladding. The confidence is continuously being built up through the good behaviour of more than 990 rods irradiated in various power reactors (BR 3, DODEWAARD, GARIGLIANO). About 40 irradiation experiments in the BR 2 reactor were launched to complete our knowledge. (author)