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[en] The strategy adopted in India is to utilize the plutonium produced in CANDU type reactors in the fast breeders when these become available. In fact, a 40 MW(t) Fast Breeder Reactor is under construction at the Reactor Research Centre near Madras to gain experience with the sodium cooled fast reactors
[en] As the plutonium content in mixed oxide fuels for thermal reactors is relatively small, only limited changes are expected in their behaviour as compared to uranium fuels. This assumption is being confirmed by experiments initiated by BELGONUCLEAIRE ten years ago on mixed oxide fuels, first with stainless steel cladding and later on with Zircaloy cladding. The confidence is continuously being built up through the good behaviour of more than 990 rods irradiated in various power reactors (BR 3, DODEWAARD, GARIGLIANO). About 40 irradiation experiments in the BR 2 reactor were launched to complete our knowledge. (author)
[en] Authors discuss the issues of protection of fast reactors and relevant nuclear fuel cycles from the proliferation of nuclear weapons using knowledge, technology and materials of nuclear energy in military programs. The features of the closed nuclear fuel cycle of fast reactors to maintain the global nonproliferation regime in comparison with the non-closed cycle of thermal reactors are also discussed
[ru]В статье обсуждаются вопросы защищенности быстрых реакторов и соответствующих ядерных топливных циклов от распространения ядерного оружия за счет использования в военных программах знаний, технологий и материалов атомной энергетики. Обсуждаются также особенности замкнутого ядерного топливного цикла быстрых реакторов по поддержанию глобального режима нераспространения
[en] Conclusion: • GIF Cost Estimating Methodology is available for use by all GIF projects. • Training for users is available at varying levels of detail. • The EMWG continues to monitor Methodology applications. • Small scale activities on additional GEN IV related case studies.
[en] Literature on the thorium fuel cycle spanning eight decades from the 1940s to the 2010s is identified, categorized, and analyzed. The publications are divided among twelve topical categories, and overall thorium literature trends are evaluated using database analysis techniques. In total, 1449 publications are identified, with the most prevalent topics being Reprocessing and Waste Management, Molten Salt Reactors, Fuels, and Light Water Reactors. In aggregate, reactor-oriented categories (five in all) comprise 45.5% of publications. The US is the most dominant thorium-publishing nation with 916 publications, followed next by India with 82 and then eight other countries having 25 publications or more. National laboratories have contributed 45% of thorium publications, with roughly equal shares of the balance split between government agencies, universities, and corporations/companies. Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the US accounts for more than a quarter of all publications. Specialized criteria are developed and applied to identify some of the most important, or “keystone”, publications for each category. Across the different categories, and for the study of thorium fuel cycles overall, published research reached an intermediate peak in the 1970s followed by a sharp decline in the 1980s and 1990s; however, interest has been revived moving into the 21st century.
[en] Recently, for 1/3 centuries, the population of the world was increasing by twice and the energy consumption is increasing by 4 times. The important problem in the 21th century is to correspond to the increasing energy demand without destroying environment. At present, 400 light water reactors are operated in the world. It says that uranium resources is impending and that the fast-breeder reactor becomes necessary when supposing that the light water reactor increases to 2000 plants in future. The expectations to the undermoderated core study are to search for the limit of breeding at LWR. In the reorganization of the light water reactor study, the experimental study of the undermoderated core is especially expected. To carry forward the study to pursue the possibility of LWR, it is necessary to construct a technical test reactor. Many problems occur in light water reactor study's leaning only to the improvement safety of the light water reactor at present. The study of the tight lattice core is one of the study example to search for in the utmost of the light water reactor. (author)
[en] An advanced water-cooled reactor concept named the Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) has been proposed to attain a high conversion ratio more than 1.0 and to achieve the negative void reactivity coefficient. At present, several types of design concepts satisfying both the design targets have been proposed based on the evaluation for the fuel without fission products and minor actinides. In this paper, the feasibility of the RMWR core is investigated for the plutonium multiple recycling under advanced reprocessing schemes with low decontamination factors as proposed for the FBR fuel cycle. (author)
[en] Versatile computational tools with up to date capabilities are needed to assess current nuclear fuel cycles or the transition from the current status of the fuel cycle to the more advanced and sustainable ones. The TR-EVOL module, that is devoted to fuel cycle mass balance, simulates diverse nuclear power plants (PWR, SFR, ADS, etc.), having possibly different types of fuels (UO_2, MOX, etc.), and the associated fuel cycle facilities (enrichment, fuel fabrication, processing, interim storage, waste storage, geological disposal). This work is intended to cross check the new capabilities of the fuel cycle scenario code TR-EVOL.This process has been divided in 2 stages. The first stage is dedicated to check the improvements in the nuclear fuel mass balance estimation using the available data for the Spanish nuclear fuel cycle. The second stage has been focused in verifying the validity of the TR-EVOL economic module, comparing results to data published by the ARCAS EU project. A specific analysis was required to evaluate the back-end cost. Data published by the waste management responsible institutions was used for the validation of the methodology. Results were highly satisfactory for both stages. In particular, the economic assessment provides a difference smaller than 3% regarding results published by the ARCAS project (NRG estimations). Furthermore, concerning the back-end cost, results are highly acceptable (7% difference for a final disposal in a once-through scenario and around 11% for a final disposal in a reprocessing strategy) given the significant uncertainties involved in design concepts and related unit costs. (authors)
[en] Aiming at building up the scientific and technical foundation for the development of the thorium fuel cycle, we carried out a cooperative fundamental study on this cycle as a promising energy source in and after the next century by the support of Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research by the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of Japanese Government from April 1988 to March 1993. In this cooperative research program, the following subjects were assigned: (1) Nuclear data for the thorium fuel cycle, (2) Design study of Th/U-233 fuelled reactors, (3) Critical experiments of these reactors and their analyses, (4)Preliminary works for fusion-fission hybrids with thorium, (5) Thorium fuel development; new thorium fuels and thorium fuel irradiation, (6) Molten salt technology, (7) thorium fuel reprocessing, and (8) Radiation safety for the thorium fuel cycle. Important results of this cooperative study from (1) to (3) are briefly reviewed. (Author)