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[en] The paper restates the prime objectives of Working Group 4 and explains that in order to accomplish their objectives two sub-groups (A and B) have been established. The Co-Chairmen suggested that sub group B take as their terms of reference those tasks remitted to them by Working Group 4 as a whole. The paper identifies and comments on 11 tasks into which the work of the sub-group is divided. The paper also includes a number of annexes giving the guidelines for data input to each task
[en] The need to develop plutonium as a thermal reactor fuel has long been recognized. The AEC has supported extensive development programs at the National Laboratories since 19S6. However, certain integrated engineering tests and commercial fabrication facilities were lacking. Recognizing this lack, Westinghouse, in cooperation with the AEC, EEI, ESADA, Euratom and others has taken the lead in correcting this situation by implementing a long-range integrated Plutonium Recycle Demonstration Program. Key elements in the program are: • Saxton Plutonium Program • EEI Plutonium Utilization Study • ESADA Critical Experiment Program #bullet# Initial Assembly Demonstration #bullet# Region Demonstration • Facilities Program.
[en] The importance for Pu-recycle for Germany lies in the specific fuel supply-situation. Pu-containing fuel is still made under relatively severe cost penalties. By optimisation of fuel distribution in light water lattices and by optimised fabrication technique this problem can be solved. Different fabrication routes are compared in their relative merits. The present status of the recycle Program in Germany is outlined. (author)
[en] The paper is subdivided into four parts: the first considers the exploitation of the energy potential of nuclear fuel in proven-type reactors and in advanced converters; the second describes ENEL's program for plutonium recycle in thermal reactors; the third discusses the availability of plutonium from ENEL's reactors; and the fourth provides a few comments on the economics of plutonium utilization. The main interest in recycling plutonium in thermal reactors pending commercial operation of fast reactors undoubtedly lies in the possibility of using plutonium as an alternate fuel in lieu of enriched uranium and of increasing exploitation of the source material. The paper gives the natural uranium exploitation indexes expressed in MWYe/ton of Unat for a few proven-type reactors and converter reactors. The comparison of these indexes indicates that if plutonium recycling in thermal reactors is applied on a large scale, it will reduce natural uranium requirements for enriched uranium production by 30-40%. ENEL's program for the utilization of plutonium in thermal reactors is based on a research contract executed with EURATOM in 1966.
[en] In many countries, uranium is a major energy resource, fueling nuclear power plants that collectively generate about 17% of the world's electricity. With global demand for energy especially electricity projected to grow rapidly over the coming decades, the price and availability of all energy sources, including uranium, are key components in the process of energy planning and decision-making. Particularly affecting the uranium market were changing projections about nuclear power's growth and the consequent demand for nuclear fuel; the emergence of a more integrated free market system including former centrally planned economies; and the emergence into the civilian market of uranium released from dismantled nuclear weapons. All these factors contributed to uncertainties in the commercial uranium market that raised questions about future fuel supplies for nuclear power plants. Signs today indicate that the situation is changing. The world uranium market is moving towards a more balanced relationship between supply and demand
[en] This paper explains the reason for preferring in some instances figures collected by Working Group 6 for spent fuel arisings. A detailed table (Table 1) is attached. Table 2 makes a comparison between the figures given for cumulative WOCA spent fuel arisings in the OECD ''Yellow Book'' and from sub-group 1A/2A computer models
[en] The relative fuel cycle cost of MOX fuel depends on a number of economic factors related to: The U fuel it is compared with: e.g. the price of NATU and SWU; the MOX fuel itself: e.g. the book value of Pu and the MOX fabrication cost; the fuel utilization: e.g. the discharge burnup. These parameters will be illustrated in representative ranges. Fuel cost calculations of this type can be utilized to decide where and how to best utilize available Pu. When to utilize such Pu must also take into account the cost of Pu storage and its ageing, resulting in subsequent purification costs (or other additional fabrication cost) and loss of fissile worth. This aspect will also be illustrated. (author). 4 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs
[en] It is clear that in the next decades there will be a substantial and increasing demand for uranium to fuel nuclear power stations. In a developing country, the discovery and development of uranium resources can be of importance either for the development of national nuclear power or for the commercial export of uranium. As the time taken between the start of a uranium exploration program and the uranium production stage.may be of the order of 6 - 10 years, it is now opportune to start new exploration so that advantage of the increased demand in the mid-1970s may be achieved. Thorium will also be of interest, but in the more distant future when the thorium cycle for advanced converters and breeder reactors is fully developed
[fr]Il est certain qu' au cours des prochaines décennies la demande d'uranium pour les centrales nucléaires sera importante et ne cessera de croître. Dans un pays en voie de développement, la découverte et la mise en valeur de ressources d'uranium peut avoir une grande importance, soit en vue de produire de l'énergie nucléoélectrique, soit en vue d'exporter l'uranium. Etant donné que les délais entre le démarrage d'un programme de prospection de l'uranium et le début de la production peuvent être de l'ordre de six ans, il est actuellement opportun de commencer les opérations d'exploration pour pouvoir profiter de la demande accrue qui s' affirmera vers le milieu de la prochaine décennie. Le thorium présentera aussi un certain intérêt, mais à plus long terme. Il faut pour cela que le cycle du thorium pour convertisseurs avancés et surgénérateurs ait été pleinement développé. (author)
[en] Within the framework of the 1997 IAEA Symposium 'Future Fuel Cycle and Reactor Strategies Adjusting to New Realities', Working Group No.3 produced a Key Issues paper addressing the title of the symposium. The scope of the Key Issues paper included those factors that are expected to remain or become important in the time period from 2015 to 2050, considering all facets of nuclear energy utilization from ore extraction to final disposal of waste products. The paper addressed the factors influencing the choice of reactor and fuel cycle. It then addressed the quantitatively largest category of reactor types expected to be important during the period; that is, thermal reactors burning uranium and plutonium fuel. The fast reactor then was discussed both as a stand-alone technology and as might be used in combination with thermal reactors. Thorium fuel use was discussed briefly. The present paper includes of a digest of the Key Issues Paper. Some comparisons arc made between the directions suggested in that paper and those indicated by the Abstracts of this Technical Committee Meeting- Recommendations are made for work which might be undertaken in the short and medium time frames, to ensure that fuel cycle technologies and processes established by the year 2050 will support the continuation of nuclear energy applications in the long term. (author)