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[en] The important tendency in the development of nuclear power is broadening the scope of its application for substitution of mineral fuel by the nuclear one not only at the electrical power production but in other energy consuming fields of industry. The development of large-scale nuclear power plants permits the provision of the significant part of energy supply of all kinds and save on oil and gas. Scales and rates of development of nuclear power are estimated for the model society on the basis of predicted need energy consumption per capita. The possible rates and scales of nuclear power development are determined at some alternative amounts of potential reserves of organic fuel (oil, gas) per capita and within the economically and ecologically reasonable scales of coal utilization. There has been given the analysis of possible scopes of application of nuclear power industry: for production of electricity, central heating, hydrogen generation, gasification of coals, metallurgy, chemistry by means of medium- and high-temperature reactors. The conceivable relation between electrical energy and heat production in energetics and the nuclear power industry and the dynamics of change in this relation is being forecasted. The promising development of high temperature helium reactors has been discussed. Considerations on possible effect of thorium cycle on the structure of nuclear power industry are outlined. The nuclear power industry is being developed mainly on the basis of nuclear power plants with thermal reactors and it should not be expected for the next decade that its structure is to change significantly. However, the development of only this type reactors will require, as early as the end of this century, the significant consumption of natural uranium and considerable increase in capacities of uranium output and uranium enrichment industry. Therefore, in the following stages of development of nuclear power industry it is necessary to introduce fast breeders capable of providing the appropriate speed of energetics' development by plutonium production with necessary rate. Some aspects of the influence of conceivable advanced development of hydrogen energetics conception on the structure of nuclear power industry are elucidated. In terms of the obtained forecasted relations in the nuclear power industry between electrical energy and heat production, the paper analyzed the possible structural composition of nuclear power industry, the relation between fast (when using them only in the electroenergetics) and thermal reactors, and also physical technical characteristics of reactors providing their necessary relation under conditions of self-provision with nuclear fuel
[en] The main tendency in the development of nuclear power is towards broadening the scope of the substitution of nuclear fuel for fossil fuels both in the production of electricity and in other energy-consuming fields of industry. The development of large-scale nuclear power plants will enable them to provide a significant part of all kinds of energy supplies and so save oil and gas. Scales and rates of development of all energy sources including nuclear power are estimated on the basis of the predicted energy consumption per capita. The possible scope of applications of nuclear power industry is analysed: electricity production, central heating, hydrogen generation, gasification of coals, metallurgy, chemistry, etc. The conceivable relation between electrical energy and heat production in energetics and the nuclear power industry and the dynamics of its change is forecast. The promising development of high-temperature helium reactors is discussed. It is shown that the development of nuclear power with thermal reactors only will require as early as the end of this century significant consumption of natural uranium and a considerable increase in uranium output and the uranium enrichment industry. Therefore, in the subsequent stages it is advisable to introduce fast breeders capable of providing an appropriate development of the energy supply through plutonium production at the necessary rate. Some aspects of the influence of foreseeable advanced developments in hydrogen energetics on the structure of the nuclear power industry are discussed. (author)
[en] The presentation provides information about the removal of submarine spent nuclear fuel from Gremikha site, a former Russian Navy base, as of 2011. The fuel would be removed to the Mayak plant for reprocessing. Technologies of handling, packing in casks and transporting of spent fuel assemblies were presented. Special focus was made on repairs and handling of damaged spent fuel assemblies and manufacturing of specific equipment for safe handling of damaged fuel. The assessment of various forms of damage to spent fuel assemblies was provided.
[en] The paper discusses the principal physical characteristics of fuel unloaded from the reactor - isotopic composition, activity of fission products and steel, and residual heat release. Data are presented on the accumulation of transplutonium elements in the unloaded fuel and their influence on activity and residual heat. An analysis is performed of the influence of the higher plutonium isotopes on the inherent activity of the fuel and on the radiation situation when plutonium fuel is handled. From an analysis of the inherent activity of the fuel, the authors have determined to what extent fission products should be removed during chemical reprocessing. They consider the dynamics of the change in fission-product activity and residual heat release with a reduction in cooling time. An evaluation is made of the effect of the delay time between chemical reprocessing and loading of the fuel into the reactor on the residual heat release and the neutron activity of the unloaded fuel. The technical problems due to reduction in the cooling time of spent fuel in the fuel cycle system are discussed on the basis of the data presented. (author)
[en] In the paper, the influence of higher plutonium isotopes on the inherent fuel activity and radiation situation when fabricating fuel elements and handling plutonium fuel is analyzed. Contribution from AM-241 and Pu 236 decay products build-up to the total activity is evaluated as a function of time elapsed from fuel reprocessing, till reloading a reactor. Main physical characteristics of spent fuel from fast power reactors, i.e. fuel isotopic composition, residual heat release and activity values, are presented. Data are given on transuranium elements build-up values in the discharged fuel as a function of the fuel isotopic composition, on the transuranium elements build-up effect upon the activity and residual heat release in the discharged fuel. On the basis of the fuel, inherent activity requirements for the degree of fast reactor fuel fission-products decontamination by chemical reprocessing are determined. In the paper, the dynamics of the fuel residual heat release and activity variations are considered under conditions of reduced cooling times. The effect of the fuel delay time before its charging into the reactor upon the residual heat release value and neutron activity of the discharged fuel is evaluated. Engineering problems connected with the above mentioned fuel properties and arising from the spent fuel cooling time reduction in the external fuel-cycle systems are discussed on the basis of the material presented. In conclusion, the relations between different fuel-cycle steps and the influence of the external fuel-cycle time upon fast reactor power system development rates are considered