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[en] The paper reviews the technical status of plutonium recycle in thermal reactors in the Foratom countries and assesses the prospect for it becoming established in the future with the implicit assumptions that uranium oxide reprocessing capacity will be installed commensurate with the projected programmes for thermal reactor installation and that there will be no insuperable environmental, security or safeguards obstacles to the use of plutonium as a fuel. It is argued that the feasibility of using plutonium as an alternative to 235U as the fuel for thermal reactors, particularly LWRs, has been extensively demonstrated by a number of Foratom countries and the main problem areas are fuel fabrication and fuel reprocessing. Mixed-oxide fuel fabrication has been well established on the prototype plant scale using low-irradiation plutonium, but it is recognized that the future design of production-scale plants will need to cater for the significantly higher radiation levels from high burnup plutonium and meet stricter environmental requirements on operator dosage and waste arisings. The main constraint on the establishment of recycle up to now has been the lack of available plutonium owing to the absence of significant uranium-oxide fuel reprocessing capacity. An assessment of the plutonium arisings in Europe, based on the projected uranium-oxide reprocessing capacity, shows that by 1990 plutonium, surplus to FBR requirements, should be accumulating by about 10t/a, sufficient to fuel about 8000MW(e) of LWRs. A further constraint would then be the availability and technical problems of mixed-oxide reprocessing, which is one of the areas identified for international collaboration. It is concluded that whilst there is unlikely to be substantial recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors in the Foratom countries before the early 1990s, an incentive could possibly arise about that time. The strength of this incentive will depend on a number of factors including the status of the fast breeder reactor, the cost and availability of uranium ore and the desirability of recycling plutonium from security considerations. (author)
[en] The paper reviews the present position and perspectives of plutonium recycle in thermal reactors in the FORATOM countries. It also gives a summary of the experience already acquired and future plans. Comments are made on problem areas and the identification of items for joint development
[en] This paper summarises the work done in India in the field of physics and economics of plutonium utilization. Plutonium recycle was considered in Tarapur Atomic Power Project and Rajasthan Atomic Power Project and the results obtained are presented in this paper. A short description of the plutonium laboratory being constructed in India i s also presented. (author)
[en] The future program which has been approved by the Federal Government in fall 1974 is based on the following: plutonium recycle at least within the next decade is a necessity. It has been shown that it is technically and economically feasible to introduce well designed plutonium elements in water reactors
[en] The paper is considering the changes in delayed neutron fraction, reactivity coefficients, and control rod reactivity associated with plutonium insertion. Description of fuel assembly and core design, plutonium recycle fuel management and experience of KWU reactors as well as KWU development programme is given (author)
[en] In this meeting we will continue the established tradition to inform each other about the most important achievements of both projects and results of activities identified on last meeting which include areas of Proliferation Resistance, Economics, Safety, and Non-electric applications. We are also expecting discussion of new areas of potential cooperation such as Modelling and Simulation, SMRs, Institutional innovations, Advanced fuel cycles including Thorium, advanced materials, and Education and Training.
[en] The paper describes the programme of nuclear power growth and plutonium production in Sweden up to 1990. Justification is given for commercial plutonium recycling in thermal power reactors starting in 1980. Review of experimental programme is presented. (author)
[en] Summary: • Development of the next version of G4ECONS is progressing well; • Comparable results obtained from the benchmarking of G4ECONS, HEEP and H2A for hydrogen production; • Completed benchmarking G4ECONS with NEST in collaboration with IAEA: –Once-through SCWR; – Two fast reactors with closed fuel cycle.
[en] Full text: Over millennia, Man has developed technology, and this technology has made possible a great increase in population, which in return finds technology indispensable. The progress in technology has been accompanied by a depletion in natural resource and pollution. The doubling of the population required l,650 years from the Year AD One, but now takes a mere 45 years. Consumption-based economies in modern times also mean that each person consumes ever so many things in order to live, and massive production and distribution networks lead inevitably to pollution and environmental devastation. The future of mankind is in jeopardy and nature has only a limited capacity to absorb and handle this extra burden of pollution. Fortunately, nuclear energy can be deployed to mitigate and even to reverse the global trend toward destruction of the environment. Issues are addressed under the headings of what is known, what should be done now and for the future. Our first priority should be training of manpower to make effective use of the nuclear knowledge which is already abundantly available. Secondly we must push for research and development in all phases of the nuclear program. Our third priority must be to develop a desalination reactor and to produce cheap and abundant nuclear hydrogen and confront the environmental issue with a high-temperature reactor. IAEA's INPRO and U.S.-led Gen lV programs together with associated fuel cycle schemes must be encouraged with a view towards eventually developing economic, reliable and proliferation-resistant reactors and fuels. Finally, the nuclear community must strive to develop a commercial transmutation reactor to incinerate long-lived radioactive nuclides. (author)