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[en] Several thorium fuel cycle variants are currently being actively pursued by the global nuclear energy community. These variants have short-, medium-, and long-term deployment pathways in a variety of reactor types, including thorium-fueled molten salt reactors. Those pathways in turn give rise to a variety of fuel designs, fuel cycle facilities, and nuclear material processing requirements. These emerging fuel cycles will impact the technical implementation of safeguards, and they already raise questions about the applicability of current verification technologies. To address this issue, research is being performed to produce a detailed safeguards technology road map. It will include a needs assessment of the detection research and development (R&D) necessary to transition the current safeguards technology toolkit to meet the verification needs of thorium fuel cycles, and to formulate the scientific basis for building new instrumentation to fill any potential capability gaps. The purpose of this technology road map is to define and inform on the safeguards technology needs for thorium fuel cycles, reflecting only the leading candidate thorium fuel cycles prioritized based on implementation timescales and the current direction of international programs. This work provides a guide to the priorities for future directed R&D needed to bring the technology readiness levels (TRLs) of safeguards detection solutions in line with the higher TRLs of the most promising thorium fuel cycles. Herein, a summary is presented of thorium fuel cycle options and activities currently underway worldwide, which provides the technical basis for the needs evaluation. The key synergies and differences between these fuel cycles and current conventional uranium- and plutonium-based fuel cycles will be discussed from a nuclear material accountancy and detection standpoint. Reactor inventory calculations, fuel cycle simulations, and conclusions from the safeguards technology needs assessment will be presented, together with plans for experimental validation. (author)
[en] Questions of staff training for the implementation of innovative projects in the field of nuclear energy are discussed. On the example of the National research nuclear University ''MEPhI'', having wide experience in the training of personnel for nuclear power, the classification of types of activities and stages of training of experts in the implementation of technologies of fast reactors are presented. The stages of development of the Department ''Technology of closed nuclear fuel cycle'', created for target training of specialists for the project ''Proryv''. (author)
[en] This article analyzes problems and approaches to modern nuclear power development using closed nuclear fuel cycle and fast reactors. It describes specified technical requirements for nuclear power systems in large-scale nuclear power industry. Targets and scientific problems solved by Rosatom’s “PRORYV” Project which is a part of the Federal State Program “Nuclear Power Technologies of New Generation in the Period of 2010-2015 and up to 2020” are examined. (author)
[en] Member States have recognized the increasing need to model future nuclear power scenarios in order to develop strategies for sustainable nuclear energy systems. The IAEA model for energy supply strategy alternatives and their general environmental impacts (MESSAGE) code is a tool that supports energy analysis and planning in Member States. This publication documents the experience gained on modelling and scenario analysis of nuclear energy systems (NES) using the MESSAGE code through various case studies performed by the participating Member States on evaluation and planning for nuclear energy sustainability at the regional or national level. The publication also elaborates on experience gained in modelling of global nuclear energy systems with a focus on specific aspects of collaboration among technology holder and technology user countries and the introduction of innovative nuclear technologies. It presents country case studies covering a variety of nuclear energy systems based on a once-through fuel cycle and a closed fuel cycle for thermal reactors, fast reactors and advanced systems. The feedback from case studies proves the analytical capabilities of the MESSAGE model and highlight the path forward for further advancements in the MESSAGE code and NES modelling.
[en] The approach applied in the study is based on the internationally verified framework developed in the INPRO collaborative project “Global Architecture of Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems with Thermal and Fast Reactors and a Closed Fuel Cycle” (GAINS) GAINS project [XIV-1] includes 8 framework cases for Homogeneous and Heterogeneous (multi-group) world for high and moderate demand scenarios based on once-through and closed fuel cycle. The INPRO collaborative project SYNERGIES - Synergistic Nuclear Energy Regional Group Interactions Evaluated for Sustainability applies and amends the analytical framework developed in GAINS to model more specifically the various forms of collaboration among countries, assess benefits and issues relevant for collaboration and identify those collaborative scenarios and architectures that ensure a ‘win-win’ strategy to both, the suppliers and users. The GAINS framework classifies non-personified countries into three country groups according to their nuclear fuel cycle strategies: NG1 countries pursue fast reactor programme and perform recycling of SNF; NG2 countries either directly dispose of the SNF or send it to NG1 for reprocessing; and NG3 countries are LWR based newcomer countries that send the SNF back to NG1 or NG2. The analysis methodology in this study is based on varying the allocation of future nuclear energy generation share of each country group as function of time for assessment of different scenarios, in comparison to the GAINS studies where the NG1:NG2:NG3 ratio was kept fixed at 40:40:20. The sensitivity analysis is targetted on studying the behavior of global nuclear energy system shares in terms of its key parameters and stress limits under variations in country group. The GIANS studies were performed under fixed NG1:NG2:NG3 share ratio held at 40:40:20. This study explores possibility of transition of NG1 and NG2 groups under changes in NG1:NG2 proportion. The study also assesses impact of NG3 share variation on NG1/NG2 front end and back end fuel cycle requirements.The present study assumes high demand scenario established by the GAINS for nuclear power generation demand growth based on long term energy demand scenarios developed by the IAEA and IPCC. According to the adopted high demand scenario, the energy demand grows to 5000 GW(e).year in 2100 and flattens afterwards. The base case BAU-FR is considered with three reactor types namely LWR, HWR and FR (BR=1.0). Brief description of reactor characteristics used in the study is provided. The fast reactors are assumed to replace LWRs gradually upon introduction. The share of HWRs in nuclear energy mix is assumed to be constant at 6% and independent of FR introduction.
[en] This article analyses problems and approaches to modern nuclear power development using closed nuclear fuel cycle and fast reactors. It describes specified technical requirements for nuclear power systems in large-scale nuclear power industry. Targets and scientific problems solved by ROSATOM’s “PRORYV” Project which is a part of the Federal State Programme “Nuclear Power Technologies of New Generation in the Period of 2010-2015 and up to 2020” are examined. (author)
[en] This annex compiles the results of relevant French and Russian scenarios for closing the Plutonium cycle with the introduction of a number of fast reactors. The studies presented in this annex fall into SYNERGIES Task 1 on Evaluation of synergistic collaborative scenarios of fuel cycle infrastructure development. The objectives of the studies compiled in this annex are to address the problem of SNF accumulation from LWRs and to decrease natural uranium consumption based on possible closed fuel cycle scenarios involving the introduction of a number of fast reactors under development in France and Russia.
[en] Even though thorium is considered a sustainable fuel cycle option, owing to the abundance of uranium and its relative ease of handling, serious attention has not been paid to developing a commercial thorium fuel cycle. Recently, the focus has again shifted towards thorium utilization because of the favourable aspects of thorium fuel. Advantages of thorium include its relative abundance compared with uranium and its occurrence as a co-product or by-product of deposits mined for other minerals. Other benefits of thorium include the better waste profile of the fuel cycle and non-proliferation advantages. For these reasons, research and development activities are currently being carried out on several types of advanced reactor that can use thorium.
[en] In this study the equilibrium closed fuel cycle was simulated for eight selected fast reactors and both U-Pu and Th-U fuel cycles. For simplicity, the fission products were neglected and the reactors were represented only by infinite lattices. It was found that the fuel composition in equilibrium cycle is stabilized and does not differ between two consecutive iso-breeding cycles. The equilibrium fuel composition also determines the excess reactivity. This reactivity should be high enough to accommodate the expected captures of fission products and the presumed neutron leakage. The remaining reactivity, if available, can be applied for additional breeding or burning of selected isotopes. The study provided insight for the differences between the eight fast reactors and also between the U-Pu and Th-U closed fuel cycles. (author)
[en] In the report considered the comparative competitiveness of NPPs and power plants with fossil fuel, renewable energy sources. Considered criteria of competitiveness for NPPs, allowing to ensure the effective development of nuclear power, taking into account of improving the technical and economic performance of alternative generation. Fixed the requirements for the technical and economic parameters of NPP FRs and closed NFC. (author)