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[en] Experimental reactor physics is an essential element of physics design of a nuclear reactor and plays an important role in the safe design and operation of nuclear reactors. Approximations in modelling the reactor using computer codes and the ‘uncertainty in the nuclear data’ that goes as input into these codes contribute to the uncertainty of the theoretically computed design parameters. Reactor physics experiments provide estimates of the uncertainty in the design by comparing the measured and computed values of these parameters. A thorium fuel cycle based advanced heavy water reactor (AHWR) is being designed in Reactor Physics Design Division, BARC. A zero power critical facility (CF) was commissioned to generate the experimental data for physics design validation of AHWR. A number of experiments were carried out in CF which includes the measurement of differential/integral parameters and various reaction rates. The covariance analysis of these measurement will be carried out to generate the relevant covariance matrices
[en] Authors discuss the issues of protection of fast reactors and relevant nuclear fuel cycles from the proliferation of nuclear weapons using knowledge, technology and materials of nuclear energy in military programs. The features of the closed nuclear fuel cycle of fast reactors to maintain the global nonproliferation regime in comparison with the non-closed cycle of thermal reactors are also discussed
[ru]В статье обсуждаются вопросы защищенности быстрых реакторов и соответствующих ядерных топливных циклов от распространения ядерного оружия за счет использования в военных программах знаний, технологий и материалов атомной энергетики. Обсуждаются также особенности замкнутого ядерного топливного цикла быстрых реакторов по поддержанию глобального режима нераспространения
[en] Plutonium recycling as currently implemented in the French nuclear fuel cycle leads to the storage of irradiated MOX fuel assemblies. Deploying a limited number of fast reactors (SFR) by the end of the century may limit the growth of this stockpile. This study investigates the possibility of replacing the initial fast reactors by so-called CAPRA reactors, which have fast reactor cores designed to consume significantly more plutonium than breeder reactors. The results show that CAPRA cores can lead to a significant decrease in the stockpile of spent PWR MOX fuel assemblies. However, their performances during a transition towards a closed fuel cycle are comparable to that of standard fast reactors. Further detailed analysis is required to try to find the optimal solution (reprocessing capabilities, fluxes of waste, ect). This document is composed of an introduction and the slides of the presentation.
[en] The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of two plutonium-thorium (Pu,Th)O2 fuel concepts on the electrical energy that could be generated by recycling plutonium from the spent UO2 fuel from a fleet of one hundred 900-MWe-class Light Water Reactor (LWR) into a fleet of 700- MWe-class Pressure Tube Heavy Water Reactors (PT-HWRs). The fuels that were analyzed include a low-burnup option using 3.5 wt% PuO2/(Pu,Th)O2, giving an exit burnup of 23.6 MWthd/kg, and a high-burnup option using 4.5 wt% PuO2/(Pu,Th)O2, giving an exit burnup of 36.4 MWthd/kg. The scenario involved the deployment of plutonium recycling facilities. The scenario was implemented using the CYCLUS fuel cycle simulation tool set. The results show that the higher burnup (Pu,Th)O2 fuelled PT-HWR fleet produced more electricity (183 TWe-days from 34 reactors) and burned more plutonium (69% reduction in Pu inventory) than the fleet with lower burnup fuel (156 TWe-days from 26 reactors, and 61% reduction in Pu inventory). This document is composed of an introduction and the slides of the presentation.
[en] Questions of staff training for the implementation of innovative projects in the field of nuclear energy are discussed. On the example of the National research nuclear University ''MEPhI'', having wide experience in the training of personnel for nuclear power, the classification of types of activities and stages of training of experts in the implementation of technologies of fast reactors are presented. The stages of development of the Department ''Technology of closed nuclear fuel cycle'', created for target training of specialists for the project ''Proryv''. (author)
[en] The present work presents the application of the coordinated approach to modelling the neutron and physical processes in light-water reactor core and selective molecular transfer of components in the separation cascade in a sequence repeated recycles of reprocessed uranium from WWER-1000 reactor spent fuel
[ru]Настоящая работа посвящена применению согласованного подхода к моделированию нейтронно-физических процессов в активной зоне реактора и процессов молекулярно-селективного переноса компонентов в разделительном каскаде в последовательности многократных рециклов регенерированного урана из отработанного ядерного топлива реакторов ВВЭР-1000
[en] Highlights: •Thorium feasibility as an alternative fuel for the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor has been demonstrated. •Thorium core shows acceptable neutronic and safety characteristics. •The depressurization and expansion reactivity effects show improvement. •GFR2400 thorium-based core can work in both open and closed cycles. •GFR2400 thorium-based core can recycle its own MA vector and plutonium of LWRs. •Safety-related parameters of thorium core are degraded in equilibrium cycle. -- Abstract: In this paper thorium fuel feasibility in large scale Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) is investigated. The neutronics benchmark used in this study, GFR2400, corresponds to a 2400 MWth GFR concept proposed by the French CEA. MCNPX computational code is used to design a 3D heterogeneous model of the GFR2400 core. A detailed feasibility analysis of the performance of thorium fuel cycle is performed by using thorium as an alternative fertile fuel for the natural uranium vector of the reference core design. The most essential neutronic parameters characterizing the core are determined both for beginning of life (BOL) conditions as well as during burnup. Also, a three-dimensional core cycle-by-cycle simulations is performed to allow explicit characterization of the core behavior and safety-related parameters during both open and equilibrium cycles. The thorium-based core shows favorable neutronic characteristics with an acceptable control and safety parameters for both BOL and open cycle states. The depressurization reactivity effect and core expansion coefficients (axial and radial) show improvement compared to the uranium-based core. However, this improvement is compensated by the deterioration in the effective delayed neutron fraction (β-eff) and the Doppler reactivity Effect. The results of isotopic transmutation and fuel burnup confirm the capability of the core to work in both open and closed cycles and to self-recycle its own MA vector and plutonium of LWRs. However-as is the case in other fast reactors including the uranium-based GFR2400 core, the fuel cycle closure causes safety related parameters to degrade.
[en] This article analyzes problems and approaches to modern nuclear power development using closed nuclear fuel cycle and fast reactors. It describes specified technical requirements for nuclear power systems in large-scale nuclear power industry. Targets and scientific problems solved by Rosatom’s “PRORYV” Project which is a part of the Federal State Program “Nuclear Power Technologies of New Generation in the Period of 2010-2015 and up to 2020” are examined. (author)
[en] This article analyses problems and approaches to modern nuclear power development using closed nuclear fuel cycle and fast reactors. It describes specified technical requirements for nuclear power systems in large-scale nuclear power industry. Targets and scientific problems solved by ROSATOM’s “PRORYV” Project which is a part of the Federal State Programme “Nuclear Power Technologies of New Generation in the Period of 2010-2015 and up to 2020” are examined. (author)
[en] In this study the equilibrium closed fuel cycle was simulated for eight selected fast reactors and both U-Pu and Th-U fuel cycles. For simplicity, the fission products were neglected and the reactors were represented only by infinite lattices. It was found that the fuel composition in equilibrium cycle is stabilized and does not differ between two consecutive iso-breeding cycles. The equilibrium fuel composition also determines the excess reactivity. This reactivity should be high enough to accommodate the expected captures of fission products and the presumed neutron leakage. The remaining reactivity, if available, can be applied for additional breeding or burning of selected isotopes. The study provided insight for the differences between the eight fast reactors and also between the U-Pu and Th-U closed fuel cycles. (author)