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[en] The waste management strategy of partitioning and transmutation is currently the cutting edge development of nuclear technologies, which has been intensively researched over the last several decades, as it is highlighted in the following two excerpts on the history of partitioning and transmutation given below.
[en] France's strategy for reusing plutonium in MOx fuel raises questions about the future of its nuclear plants. Nicolas Thiolliere, a researcher in nuclear physics at IMT Atlantique, and his team are assessing various possibilities for the future of France's nuclear power plants. They seek to answer the following questions: how can the quantity of plutonium in circulation in the nuclear cycle be reduced? What impacts will the choice of fuel - specifically MOx - have on nuclear plants? To answer to these questions, they are using a computer simulator that models different scenarios: CLASS (Core Library for Advanced Scenario Simulation).
[fr]La strategie adoptee par la France sur la reutilisation du plutonium via le combustible MOx n'est pas sans poser des questions de fond sur l'avenir du parc nucleaire. Nicolas Thiolliere, chercheur en physique nucleaire a IMT Atlantique, et son equipe evaluent les differents futurs envisageables du parc nucleaire francais. Parmi les questions qu'ils se posent: Comment diminuer la quantite de plutonium en circulation dans le cycle nucleaire? Quel est l'impact du choix du combustible - et notamment le MOx - sur le parc? Ils s'appuient pour cela sur un simulateur informatique permettant de modeliser differents scenarios: CLASS (Core Library for Advanced Scenario Simulation).
[en] Nuclear Energy Data is the Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports documenting nuclear power status in NEA member countries and in the OECD area. Information provided by governments includes statistics on total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, fuel cycle capacities and requirements, and projections to 2040, where available. Country reports summarise energy policies, updates of the status in nuclear energy programmes and fuel cycle developments. In 2018, nuclear power continued to supply significant amounts of low-carbon base-load electricity, despite strong competition from low-cost fossil fuels and subsidised renewable energy sources. Governments committed to having nuclear power in the energy mix advanced plans for developing or increasing nuclear generating capacity, with the preparation of new build projects making progress in Finland, Hungary, Turkey and the United Kingdom. Further details on these and other developments are provided in the publication's numerous tables, graphs and country reports
[en] On November 27-29, 2019, leading Russian experts discussed the development of nuclear reactors at the 30th Scientific-technical conference «Neutron-physical problems of atomic energy (Neutronics-2019)», held at the SSC RF - IPPE. The issues of nuclear energy development were considered. Reports are presented on two-component nuclear energy and promising nuclear facilities, nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear facilities, neutron kinetics and non-stationary processes. Numerical methods, algorithms and programs of neutron-physical calculations, constants for neutron-physical calculations are discussed. The analysis of integral and reactor experiments is carried out, databases, benchmark models are considered. The conference held a competition of young scientists, the results of which were summed up at a special youth section
[ru]27-29 ноября 2019 года ведущие российские специалисты обсудили развитие ядерных реакторов на 30-й Научно-технической конференции «Нейтронно-физические проблемы атомной энергетики (Нейтроника-2019)», прошедшей на базе АО «ГНЦ РФ - ФЭИ». Были рассмотрены вопросы развития ядерной энергетики. Представлены доклады по двухкомпонентной атомной энергетике и перспективным ядерным установкам, ядерной и радиационной безопасности объектов атомной отрасли, нейтронной кинетике и нестационарным процессам. Обсуждаются численные методы, алгоритмы и программы нейтронно-физических расчетов, константы для нейтронно-физических расчетов. Проведен анализ интегральных и реакторных экспериментов, рассматриваются базы данных, бенчмарк-модели. На конференции состоялся конкурс молодых ученых, итоги которого подвели на специальной молодежной секции
[en] This decree modifies a previous one (22 June 1984) and authorises the Orano Cycle company to implement several modifications to its installation providing the respect of preliminary and specific agreements by the ASN. Among these modifications, it authorises the exploitation of a new workshop of radioactive wastes processing (TRIDENT) within an existing building. The decree defines thresholds for the uranium 235 content in the whole installation and in TRIDENT, and for the radioactivity level for waste warehousing and for the warehousing of materials other than fuel and moderating elements from nuclear power plants.
[en] Most nuclear reactors under operation are thermal reactors, which consume U in once-through fuel cycle resulting in ineffective resource utilization and dramatic SNF volume growth. However, sustainable nuclear energy system (NES) should provide NFC closing for all hazardous radionuclides to minimize its life-time within NES and to make risk to be proportional to NES capacity, rather than total energy produced. These two basic principles require enough amount of neutrons for both energy generation and hazardous radionuclides transition to fission products. Therefore, taking into account politic, economic and technological risks and uncertainties, these issues can be solved in terms of two-component NES consisting of both thermal and fast reactors. In this work two methods to estimate neutron balance in NES are discussed. The fist method is based on the analysis of nuclear transformation chain due to radioactive decays and neutron induced reactions. The second one is the most complete one and relies on reaction rates comparison. Neutron balance estimation approach is demonstrated for two-component NES case study.
[en] The Pilot Conversion Plant (PCP) is a facility for processing yellow cake into nuclear grade uranium oxide (UO2) powder. The PCP facility is part of the Experimental Fuel Element Installation (EFEI) located at the Nuclear Fuel Technology Center, BATAN Indonesia. The PCP facility is designed for the production of nuclear grade uranium dioxide (UO2) powder with a capacity of 100 kg UO2 per day, with a feed process of around 130 kg of yellow cake powder. The conversion process consists of the process of crushing and sieving YC powder, dissolving the YC into a solution of uranyl nitrate (UN), purifying the UN solution, concentrating the UN solution, the process of deposition of UN into ammonium diuranate (ADU), the process of separating and drying ADU powder, the calcination process of ADU into U3O8, the U3O8 reduction process into UO2 powder and the passivation process of UO2 with nitrogen gas (N2). The PCP facility is equipped with a main control room so that all processes can be monitored and controlled from the control room. The PCP facility has been revitalized in 2010 and commissioned successfully in 2014. Currently, the PCP has been operating and can produce high purity uranium dioxide powder that meets nuclear degree requirements and used as fuel for a Pressure Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) power reactor type. Having succeeded in producing nuclear-grade UO2 powder, the technology of the yellow cake conversion process into UO2 powder in the PCP has been understood, so that it can provide uranium powder requirements in the development of nuclear fuel technology in Indonesia. (author)
[en] Mindful of possible future limitations on the availability of uranium, the introduction of the thorium fuel cycle is potentially a complementary source of nuclear energy. This publication assimilates current knowledge of thorium geology and mineralization into a brief account on the worldwide occurrence of thorium resources. Although thorium is currently not commercially viable as a fuel, it is important to pre-emptively assess thorium related information should that situation change. Thus, the publication provides an overview of the variety of natural thorium deposit types with associated thorium geology and thorium resources. It reviews available data on thorium occurrences/deposits and thorium resources and presents a classification of deposits according to geological and economic criteria.
[en] The author gives a broad picture of the development of nuclear power and industry in the world. He analyzes the evolution history of nuclear technologies in the USA and in the USSR. It also considers the present-day state of nuclear power. The author emphasized that achieving the full-scale evolution level of nuclear power capable to cope with the socio-economic and ecological issues faced by humankind requires a basically new evolution concept for all fields of nuclear industry
[ru]Автор дает широкую картину развития атомной энергетики и промышленности в мире. Он анализирует историю развития ядерных технологий в США и в СССР. Также рассматривается современное состояние ядерной энергетики. Автор подчеркивает, что достижение полномасштабного уровня эволюции ядерной энергетики, способной справиться с социально-экономическими и экологическими проблемами, с которыми сталкивается человечество, требует принципиально новой концепции эволюции для всех областей ядерной отрасли
[en] Existing NESs, which are mainly based on TRs operating in a once through cycle, will continue to represent the main contribution to nuclear energy production for at least several decades. As many national and international studies have shown, major innovations in reactor and NFC technologies are needed in order to achieve sustainable nuclear energy development. New reactors, nuclear fuels and fuel cycle technologies are under development and are being demonstrated worldwide. In these conditions, the evaluation of the status, prospects, benefits and risks associated with innovative technologies is very important. The results of such an evaluation could be useful not only for countries engaged in nuclear power development, but also for newcomer countries evaluating their potential to start a nuclear programme. This case study, performed by the team of Romanian experts from RATEN ICN Pitesti, proposes to apply the KIND approach to evaluate evolutionary and INES technologies comparatively, based on specific KIs. The analyses performed address the status, prospects, benefits and risks related to the development of these technologies, taking into consideration country specifics. The general and specific goals of the case study are in agreement with the KIND objectives.