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[en] This paper summarises the work done in India in the field of physics and economics of plutonium utilization. Plutonium recycle was considered in Tarapur Atomic Power Project and Rajasthan Atomic Power Project and the results obtained are presented in this paper. A short description of the plutonium laboratory being constructed in India i s also presented. (author)
[en] The Plutonium Utilization Program (PUP) of the USAEC is being carried out by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory of Battelle Memorial Institute. The basic mission of the program has been to develop the- base technology necessary for the implementation of plutonium recycle in commercial power reactors. Hie program scope has been quite broad in the past, including plutonium fuels development, chemical reprocessing studies, physics of plutonium-enriched systems, and technical and economic optimization studies of plutonium-enriched reactors. More recently, the major efforts have been directed toward solving the immediate problems of utilizing plutonium as enrichment in refueling cycles in the present generation of H2O moderated and cooled power reactors. This report summarizes the current and planned program activities. Another report prepared for the panel meeting ''Results from USAEC Plutonium Utilization Program Conducted by Battelle-Northwest'' presents detailed results and conclusions from the programs and therefore these will not be presented here. The major emphasis of the program are on physics and fuels developments.
[en] The need to develop plutonium as a thermal reactor fuel has long been recognized. The AEC has supported extensive development programs at the National Laboratories since 19S6. However, certain integrated engineering tests and commercial fabrication facilities were lacking. Recognizing this lack, Westinghouse, in cooperation with the AEC, EEI, ESADA, Euratom and others has taken the lead in correcting this situation by implementing a long-range integrated Plutonium Recycle Demonstration Program. Key elements in the program are: • Saxton Plutonium Program • EEI Plutonium Utilization Study • ESADA Critical Experiment Program #bullet# Initial Assembly Demonstration #bullet# Region Demonstration • Facilities Program.
[en] The importance for Pu-recycle for Germany lies in the specific fuel supply-situation. Pu-containing fuel is still made under relatively severe cost penalties. By optimisation of fuel distribution in light water lattices and by optimised fabrication technique this problem can be solved. Different fabrication routes are compared in their relative merits. The present status of the recycle Program in Germany is outlined. (author)
[en] Taking as their starting point the various power reactor construction programmes, the authors estimate in the first part of the paper the production of plutonium in the non-socialist world for the period up to 1980. They also estimate the plutonium requirements of the various fast reactor programmes. For the period up to 1970-71, it is found that United States requirements will be satisfied only by drawing on the United States Atomic Energy Commission's stocks and through the exchange agreement with the United Kingdom. For the rest of the world, resources and requirements will be more or less in equilibrium. From 1971 onwards production will greatly exceed the requirements of fast reactors, which will still only be at the prototype stage. If it is assumed that the large-scale construction of fast reactors will not begin until ten years later, the only outlet for plutonium, for which there will no longer be a guarantee of repurchase by the USAEC in the case of enriched uranium reactors, will consist of recycling in thermal reactors. Storage with a view to re-use in breeders at a more remote and indeterminate date would impose an intolerable financial burden on power reactor operators. The question thus arises whether a collapse in the price of plutonium will occur after 1970. In the second part of the paper the authors attempt to predict the course of such a price collapse, followed by a rise as breeders enter service on a commercial basis. They discuss the effects that the absence of plutonium stocks and die competition of recycling in thermal reactors might have on the commercial introduction of breeders. Finally, an attempt is made to determine by what mechanisms a harmonious market for plutonium could be assured during the next fifteen years. (author)
[fr]Dans une première partie on procède - î partir des programmes de construction de centrales nucléaires - à une estimation de la production de plutonium dans le monde non socialiste jusqu'en 1980. On estime par ailleurs les besoins de plutonium des divers programmes de réacteurs de la filière rapide. On constate que dans une première période allant jusqu'en 1970 ou 1971 les besoins américains ne seront satisfaits que grâce aux stocks de la Commission de l'énergie atomique et au contrat de troc avec le Royaume-Uni. Pour le reste du monde, ressources et besoins sont à peu près équilibrés. A partir de 1971, la production dépassera très largement les besoins des réacteurs rapides, qui ne seront encore qu'à l'état de prototypes. Si l'on admet que leur construction en série ne commencera que 10 ans plus tard, le plutonium, qui pour les réacteurs a uranium enrichi ne bénéficiera plus de la garantie de rachat de la CEA des Etats-Unis, n'aura d'autre débouché que le recyclage dans les réacteurs thermiques. Le stockage en vue d'une réutilisation dans les surgénérateurs à une date lointaine et indéterminée constituerait en effet pour les exploitants de centrales une charge financière intolérable. Assistera-t-on à partir de 1970 à un effondrement du prix du plutonium? Dans la deuxième partie, on essaie de prévoir comment s'opérerait un tel effondrement, puis la remontée du prix lors du démarrage industriel des surgénérateurs et quelles conséquences pourraient avoir sur ce démarrage l'absence de stock de plutonium et la concurrence du recyclage dans les réacteurs thermiques. En conclusion, on essaie de définir les mécanismes qui pourraient permettre un fonctionnement harmonieux du marché du plutonium dans les 15 prochaines années. (author)
[en] This paper presents recent results from the USAEC's Plutonium Utilization Program conducted by Battelle-Northwest. The information will be presented at the Panel on Plutonium Utilization to be held by the International Atomic Energy Agency, September 2-6, 1968. A second paper ''United States Programs on Plutonium Utilization in Thermal Reactors'' presents a review of the plans of the program being conducted and, therefore, this paper will be primarily a status report on the technology of plutonium. The large number of water reactors purchased by U.S. utilities in the past few years will be put in operation in the late 1960's and early 1970's. These reactors will produce large quantities of plutonium and a plutonium excess for the United States is predicted for around 1973. Today it appears unlikely that fast reactors will develop soon enough to use this plutonium. Storing of the plutonium until fast reactors are developed does not appear economically feasible. Since the fuel cycle cost of the water reactors reflect a plutonium credit of 0.2 to 0.4 mils/Kwh, economic utilization of plutonium must be realized in order to effect this fuel cycle cost reduction. In the United States, water reactors will probably be the only reactors available in the 1970's in sufficient numbers to utilize the large quantities of plutonium available. Some plutonium will be required in the development of fast reactors and for loadings of the prototypes, but this is projected to be a small fraction of the total plutonium available in the 1970's. On this basis, the AEC's Plutonium Utilization Program objective is to develop by 1973 the base technology for safe and economic recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors, and more specifically in light water power reactors. The remaining technical uncertainties for plutonium recycle are primarily in the areas of fuels and physics. Consequently, these are the areas where the major research and development effort is being applied. These programs receive input from utilization studies which identify potential problem areas and incentives. The following sections of the report present recent results in fuels and physics development and plutonium utilization studies.
[en] It is currently accepted that plutonium must be recycled on a large scale in thermal power reactors in the period starting in 1974 even though the ultimate long term market for plutonium will be in breeder reactors. To meet this schedule, the economics and technology of plutonium recycle must be demonstrated on a commercial basis by 1971-1972 if fuel suppliers are to be in a position to supply warranted plutonium recycle assemblies for delivery in 1974. United Nuclear Corporation is conducting a research and development program to provide the base of analytical and experimental data, necessary for supplying plutoniumbearing reload assemblies in light water reactors. This program includes activities in the following areas: 1. Evaluations of plutonium recycle utilization strategy and core design. 2. Critical experiments on PuO2-UO2 lattices. 3. Demonstration of plutonium recycle in a utility power reactor. A summary of progress and plans in these areas is given in the following sections.
[en] This work is a continuation of the first investigations in the field and encompass more issues connected with reproduction in U-Th breeder-reactors, as well as uses more accurate and reliable calculation methods. Much attention is paid to choice of nuclear-physical constants. 24 refs, 3 figs, 6 tabs
[en] The IAEA convened a Panel on the utilization of thorium in power reactors from 14 to 18 June 1965. 45 scientists from 14 countries and two international organizations took part in it. The proceedings of the Panel include 23 survey papers and brief reviews which stress the importance of utilizing thorium. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, tabs, figs