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[en] Mindful of possible future limitations on the availability of uranium, the introduction of the thorium fuel cycle is potentially a complementary source of nuclear energy. This publication assimilates current knowledge of thorium geology and mineralization into a brief account on the worldwide occurrence of thorium resources. Although thorium is currently not commercially viable as a fuel, it is important to pre-emptively assess thorium related information should that situation change. Thus, the publication provides an overview of the variety of natural thorium deposit types with associated thorium geology and thorium resources. It reviews available data on thorium occurrences/deposits and thorium resources and presents a classification of deposits according to geological and economic criteria.
[en] The approach applied in the study is based on the internationally verified framework developed in the INPRO collaborative project “Global Architecture of Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems with Thermal and Fast Reactors and a Closed Fuel Cycle” (GAINS) GAINS project [XIV-1] includes 8 framework cases for Homogeneous and Heterogeneous (multi-group) world for high and moderate demand scenarios based on once-through and closed fuel cycle. The INPRO collaborative project SYNERGIES - Synergistic Nuclear Energy Regional Group Interactions Evaluated for Sustainability applies and amends the analytical framework developed in GAINS to model more specifically the various forms of collaboration among countries, assess benefits and issues relevant for collaboration and identify those collaborative scenarios and architectures that ensure a ‘win-win’ strategy to both, the suppliers and users. The GAINS framework classifies non-personified countries into three country groups according to their nuclear fuel cycle strategies: NG1 countries pursue fast reactor programme and perform recycling of SNF; NG2 countries either directly dispose of the SNF or send it to NG1 for reprocessing; and NG3 countries are LWR based newcomer countries that send the SNF back to NG1 or NG2. The analysis methodology in this study is based on varying the allocation of future nuclear energy generation share of each country group as function of time for assessment of different scenarios, in comparison to the GAINS studies where the NG1:NG2:NG3 ratio was kept fixed at 40:40:20. The sensitivity analysis is targetted on studying the behavior of global nuclear energy system shares in terms of its key parameters and stress limits under variations in country group. The GIANS studies were performed under fixed NG1:NG2:NG3 share ratio held at 40:40:20. This study explores possibility of transition of NG1 and NG2 groups under changes in NG1:NG2 proportion. The study also assesses impact of NG3 share variation on NG1/NG2 front end and back end fuel cycle requirements.The present study assumes high demand scenario established by the GAINS for nuclear power generation demand growth based on long term energy demand scenarios developed by the IAEA and IPCC. According to the adopted high demand scenario, the energy demand grows to 5000 GW(e).year in 2100 and flattens afterwards. The base case BAU-FR is considered with three reactor types namely LWR, HWR and FR (BR=1.0). Brief description of reactor characteristics used in the study is provided. The fast reactors are assumed to replace LWRs gradually upon introduction. The share of HWRs in nuclear energy mix is assumed to be constant at 6% and independent of FR introduction.
[en] This annex compiles the results of relevant French and Russian scenarios for closing the Plutonium cycle with the introduction of a number of fast reactors. The studies presented in this annex fall into SYNERGIES Task 1 on Evaluation of synergistic collaborative scenarios of fuel cycle infrastructure development. The objectives of the studies compiled in this annex are to address the problem of SNF accumulation from LWRs and to decrease natural uranium consumption based on possible closed fuel cycle scenarios involving the introduction of a number of fast reactors under development in France and Russia.
[en] The objective of this contribution is to analyze long-term scenarios for closed fuel cycle in a European context, including economical estimates as additional reference results. The analysis of long-term sustainability of nuclear energy should consider transition scenarios from the current open fuel cycle or partially closed to fully closed cycles based on advanced technologies. This kind of study must provide answers to different aspects of transition scenarios, such as the period of time needed to reach material flow equilibrium, the recommended number and date of introduction of facilities in the fuel cycle, the amount of stored material, the nuclear waste, etc. Moreover, there is an interest to improve these studies with economics analyses, as a necessary input to evaluate the realistic viability of new strategies. This Annex analyses the transition from the existing light water reactor (LWR) fleet to advanced fast spectrum reactors, taking also into account an intermediate stage of Generation III+ LWR deployment. It assumes that a representative number of European Union countries is involved, as in the exercise PATEROS. The analysis of these fuel cycle scenarios has been performed according to guidelines specified in the EU CP-ESFR and ARCAS projects. The nuclear fuel cycle scenarios have been evaluated using TREVOL, a module developed by CIEMAT in order to improve the capabilities of the in-house burn-up simulation system, EVOLCODE 2.0. TREVOL has been designed to study short, medium and long-term options for the introduction of various types of nuclear reactors and for the usage of associated nuclear material, giving due consideration to the isotopic composition of the material in any stage of the fuel cycle, essentially uranium, plutonium, minor actinides and fission products. Moreover, the application of an economic module provides additional and relevant information to study the fuel cycle in a global context.
[en] Metal fuel development: • Fabrication and Testing of pins in FBTR. • FBTR core conversion as predominantly metallic fuel. • Construction of an experimental 320 MWt test reactor with metallic fuel core for testing of power reactor full-scale metal fuel subassemblies. • A pyroprocess plant for treating the spent metal fuels from FBTR will be set up and commissioned in 2020. Preliminary physics design of 320 MWt experimental metal core completed.
[en] The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) at IAEA has carried out assessment studies on global, regional and country levels based on INRPO methodology for developing a global vision of nuclear energy sustainability for the 21st century. Particularly, the GAINS project developed a global architecture for sustainable growth of global nuclear energy in the current century. The GAINS project outlined a framework that provides common platform for methodological and dynamic assessment of global NES covering basic assumptions and boundary conditions. The project also performed sample studies and identified potential areas of GAINS framework application for assessment of key scenarios of transition to sustainable future of nuclear energy systems. Global and regional scenario studies have shown prospects of innovative NES employing closed fuel cycle and containing fast reactors for meeting global and regional nuclear power demands. An INPRO study on thorium fuel cycle has illustrated that thorium can play an important role in supporting U-Pu based NFC for several scenarios considering high demand growth of world nuclear energy. A joint study performed assessment of a national NES based on closed nuclear fuel cycle with fast reactors for determining milestones for deployment and establishing frameworks and areas of collaboration for sustainable nuclear energy development. Although INPRO studies encompass broad areas of technological options for supporting transition to sustainable NES, there are certain possible scenarios that are not considered in these studies. For example, the nuclear reactors used in these studies do not include all reactor design options being developed or considered by Member States, such as high conversion thermal reactors. Similarly, innovative small modular reactor designs with high conversion ratios are at advanced design stages or prototype deployment stage. Such high conversion reactor options can help reduce natural uranium consumption if considered as replacement of conventional LWRs and HWRs, significantly affecting the requirements of FRs or closed nuclear fuel cycle options. Another interesting option is use of FRs with enriched uranium as start-up load followed by utilizing recycled Pu+U+MA from own spent fuel. This option is briefly discussed. The present study provides detailed analysis and investigation of the likely impacts of FR introduction using UOX fuel as startup load on the nuclear energy system.
[en] Task 1 of the INPRO SYNERGIES project focuses on assessing scenarios involving use of PHWR, LWR and FR reactor technologies using uranium and/or plutonium as main fissile content of the fuel. Its scope is also extended to analyze the scenario of using thorium-based fuel that may be introduced in the medium-term time frame, from 2030 to 2050. Among various scenario storylines, Scenario family D (see Section 2 of the report) envisages transition to thorium-233U fuel cycle via use of uranium/plutonium in thermal and fast reactors. One of the storylines of the Scenario family D is similar in concept to the Indian three stage nuclear power programme. While results of a study considering storyline of the Scenario family D have been published, a parametric study was carried out to assess the effect of availability of fast reactors technologies using metallic fuel on transition to Thorium-233U fuel cycle.
[en] Under the long term energy development plan for Indonesia, the growth of energy demand is projected to increase very rapidly. Meeting the increased domestic energy demand presents a major challenge to the country, as existing resources are limited. Selection of energy supply options shall be sought and deliberated from various aspects, including energy availability and security, technology, safety, social economic and environment. To guide the development of sustainable energy supply, Presidential Decree Number 5 on National Energy Policy (2006) has been enacted. The policy addresses the national primary energy mix in 2025, in which the share of oil supply shall be reduced only up to 20%, natural gas increases to 30%, coal should be more than 33%, bio-fuel up to 5%, geothermal up to 5%, other renewable sources (bio-mass, nuclear energy, hydro, solar cell, and wind) up to 5%, and liquefied coal up to 2%. The introduction of nuclear power in Indonesia is not only to reach an optimum energy mix considering costs and environment, but also to relieve the pressure arising from the increasing domestic demand for oil and gas (so that oil and gas resources can be used for export and feed stocks). Thus, the role of nuclear power is to stabilize the supply of electricity, conserve strategic oil and gas resources and protect the environment from harmful pollutants that result from use of fossil fuels. In the context of the civil use of nuclear energy, Indonesia has enacted Act No. 10 of 1997 on Nuclear Energy, which underscores the importance of nuclear energy for our welfare and the need for its safe applications. The national commitment to implementing a nuclear power program is stated in Act No. 17 Year 2007 on Long Term National Energy Planning 2005 2025. The inclusion of nuclear power in the energy mix sets the ground for the need of sustainable planning of the country’s nuclear power plant (NPP) program into the future. The aim of the current study is to analyses a range of fuel cycle options from the perspective of their effect on the utilization of natural Uranium resources and the radioactive waste generated (i.e. spent fuels). This is intended to support the sustainable of NPP program development in Indonesia. The results of feasibility study for the first NPP in Indonesia support plans for a 1000 MW(e) class of PWR operating in an open fuel cycle with extended interim storage of spent fuel. This is considering the spent fuel still possesses economic value and long term strategic value. If economically feasible, nuclear fuel element fabrication is planned to be conducted in Indonesia and the national uranium resources will be used as substitutions. Meanwhile, enrichment services will be obtained from international market.