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[en] In this meeting we will continue the established tradition to inform each other about the most important achievements of both projects and results of activities identified on last meeting which include areas of Proliferation Resistance, Economics, Safety, and Non-electric applications. We are also expecting discussion of new areas of potential cooperation such as Modelling and Simulation, SMRs, Institutional innovations, Advanced fuel cycles including Thorium, advanced materials, and Education and Training.
[en] Conclusion: • GIF Cost Estimating Methodology is available for use by all GIF projects. • Training for users is available at varying levels of detail. • The EMWG continues to monitor Methodology applications. • Small scale activities on additional GEN IV related case studies.
[en] India with its closed fuel cycle policy, like a few others in the world, has its own share of legacy waste. Slow but steady accumulation of alpha contaminated un-serviceable Glove Boxes (GBs) is a main concern and demands immediate solution for management of such radioactive waste. As a temporary measure these GBs, encased in individual secondary enclosures, were transported and stored at dedicated alpha storage facility. In 2014, a campaign for contact dismantling of these alpha contaminated GBs was planned. Under this campaign, a temporary facility for active contact dismantling was designed, developed & erected in the existing alpha storage facility and six (6) GBs stored were successfully dismantled and disposed of. This report talks about the practices being followed in the nuclear industry around the world, the inactive dismantling trials in BARC and finally about the campaign for active contact dismantling of alpha contaminated GBs.
[en] Mindful of possible future limitations on the availability of uranium, the introduction of the thorium fuel cycle is potentially a complementary source of nuclear energy. This publication assimilates current knowledge of thorium geology and mineralization into a brief account on the worldwide occurrence of thorium resources. Although thorium is currently not commercially viable as a fuel, it is important to pre-emptively assess thorium related information should that situation change. Thus, the publication provides an overview of the variety of natural thorium deposit types with associated thorium geology and thorium resources. It reviews available data on thorium occurrences/deposits and thorium resources and presents a classification of deposits according to geological and economic criteria.
[en] The approach applied in the study is based on the internationally verified framework developed in the INPRO collaborative project “Global Architecture of Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems with Thermal and Fast Reactors and a Closed Fuel Cycle” (GAINS) GAINS project [XIV-1] includes 8 framework cases for Homogeneous and Heterogeneous (multi-group) world for high and moderate demand scenarios based on once-through and closed fuel cycle. The INPRO collaborative project SYNERGIES - Synergistic Nuclear Energy Regional Group Interactions Evaluated for Sustainability applies and amends the analytical framework developed in GAINS to model more specifically the various forms of collaboration among countries, assess benefits and issues relevant for collaboration and identify those collaborative scenarios and architectures that ensure a ‘win-win’ strategy to both, the suppliers and users. The GAINS framework classifies non-personified countries into three country groups according to their nuclear fuel cycle strategies: NG1 countries pursue fast reactor programme and perform recycling of SNF; NG2 countries either directly dispose of the SNF or send it to NG1 for reprocessing; and NG3 countries are LWR based newcomer countries that send the SNF back to NG1 or NG2. The analysis methodology in this study is based on varying the allocation of future nuclear energy generation share of each country group as function of time for assessment of different scenarios, in comparison to the GAINS studies where the NG1:NG2:NG3 ratio was kept fixed at 40:40:20. The sensitivity analysis is targetted on studying the behavior of global nuclear energy system shares in terms of its key parameters and stress limits under variations in country group. The GIANS studies were performed under fixed NG1:NG2:NG3 share ratio held at 40:40:20. This study explores possibility of transition of NG1 and NG2 groups under changes in NG1:NG2 proportion. The study also assesses impact of NG3 share variation on NG1/NG2 front end and back end fuel cycle requirements.The present study assumes high demand scenario established by the GAINS for nuclear power generation demand growth based on long term energy demand scenarios developed by the IAEA and IPCC. According to the adopted high demand scenario, the energy demand grows to 5000 GW(e).year in 2100 and flattens afterwards. The base case BAU-FR is considered with three reactor types namely LWR, HWR and FR (BR=1.0). Brief description of reactor characteristics used in the study is provided. The fast reactors are assumed to replace LWRs gradually upon introduction. The share of HWRs in nuclear energy mix is assumed to be constant at 6% and independent of FR introduction.
[en] This annex compiles the results of relevant French and Russian scenarios for closing the Plutonium cycle with the introduction of a number of fast reactors. The studies presented in this annex fall into SYNERGIES Task 1 on Evaluation of synergistic collaborative scenarios of fuel cycle infrastructure development. The objectives of the studies compiled in this annex are to address the problem of SNF accumulation from LWRs and to decrease natural uranium consumption based on possible closed fuel cycle scenarios involving the introduction of a number of fast reactors under development in France and Russia.
[en] China NPPs Development Plan: Improving the utilization rate of uranium resources and disposing of spent fuel are two major problems in the development of nuclear energy. Developing fast reactors and their closed fuel cycles are important options for the sustainable development of nuclear energy in China.
[en] The objective of this contribution is to analyze long-term scenarios for closed fuel cycle in a European context, including economical estimates as additional reference results. The analysis of long-term sustainability of nuclear energy should consider transition scenarios from the current open fuel cycle or partially closed to fully closed cycles based on advanced technologies. This kind of study must provide answers to different aspects of transition scenarios, such as the period of time needed to reach material flow equilibrium, the recommended number and date of introduction of facilities in the fuel cycle, the amount of stored material, the nuclear waste, etc. Moreover, there is an interest to improve these studies with economics analyses, as a necessary input to evaluate the realistic viability of new strategies. This Annex analyses the transition from the existing light water reactor (LWR) fleet to advanced fast spectrum reactors, taking also into account an intermediate stage of Generation III+ LWR deployment. It assumes that a representative number of European Union countries is involved, as in the exercise PATEROS. The analysis of these fuel cycle scenarios has been performed according to guidelines specified in the EU CP-ESFR and ARCAS projects. The nuclear fuel cycle scenarios have been evaluated using TREVOL, a module developed by CIEMAT in order to improve the capabilities of the in-house burn-up simulation system, EVOLCODE 2.0. TREVOL has been designed to study short, medium and long-term options for the introduction of various types of nuclear reactors and for the usage of associated nuclear material, giving due consideration to the isotopic composition of the material in any stage of the fuel cycle, essentially uranium, plutonium, minor actinides and fission products. Moreover, the application of an economic module provides additional and relevant information to study the fuel cycle in a global context.
[en] We have established several priorities for the Department of Nuclear Energy in 2012/2013: Given the continued rising expectations for nuclear power, we will provide increased support to Member States which consider launching or expanding nuclear power programmes, uranium mining or other fuel cycle activities. Another priority is improved sharing of good practices in spent fuel management, waste management and disposal, as well as expanded international cooperation on closed fuel cycles and innovative technologies. Also, increased support to Member States to advance research, nuclear science and the production of medical radioisotopes are among our priorities, as well as increased support to human resources development for nuclear power, research reactors and nuclear science.
[en] Summary of INPRO proposal in 2013 GIF/INPRO-IAEA interface meeting: • Closed fuel cycle system based on one of the GIF reactor types; • Scope of NESA, i.e. areas of assessment, depends on the input data availability; Example: assessment of NES based on SFR in the areas of Safety, Environmental stressors, Resources, Waste Management and Proliferation Resistance. • Different levels of consideration possible (User Requirements level or Criteria level); • INPRO prospective interest: Feedback from the assessment of systems based on innovative reactors. • GIF prospective interest: Application of INPRO methodology may help to reveal potential gaps in R&D program and to close these gaps; NESA study may be useful for future marketing of the reactor design.