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[en] Several thorium fuel cycle variants are currently being actively pursued by the global nuclear energy community. These variants have short-, medium-, and long-term deployment pathways in a variety of reactor types, including thorium-fueled molten salt reactors. Those pathways in turn give rise to a variety of fuel designs, fuel cycle facilities, and nuclear material processing requirements. These emerging fuel cycles will impact the technical implementation of safeguards, and they already raise questions about the applicability of current verification technologies. To address this issue, research is being performed to produce a detailed safeguards technology road map. It will include a needs assessment of the detection research and development (R&D) necessary to transition the current safeguards technology toolkit to meet the verification needs of thorium fuel cycles, and to formulate the scientific basis for building new instrumentation to fill any potential capability gaps. The purpose of this technology road map is to define and inform on the safeguards technology needs for thorium fuel cycles, reflecting only the leading candidate thorium fuel cycles prioritized based on implementation timescales and the current direction of international programs. This work provides a guide to the priorities for future directed R&D needed to bring the technology readiness levels (TRLs) of safeguards detection solutions in line with the higher TRLs of the most promising thorium fuel cycles. Herein, a summary is presented of thorium fuel cycle options and activities currently underway worldwide, which provides the technical basis for the needs evaluation. The key synergies and differences between these fuel cycles and current conventional uranium- and plutonium-based fuel cycles will be discussed from a nuclear material accountancy and detection standpoint. Reactor inventory calculations, fuel cycle simulations, and conclusions from the safeguards technology needs assessment will be presented, together with plans for experimental validation. (author)
[en] Questions of staff training for the implementation of innovative projects in the field of nuclear energy are discussed. On the example of the National research nuclear University ''MEPhI'', having wide experience in the training of personnel for nuclear power, the classification of types of activities and stages of training of experts in the implementation of technologies of fast reactors are presented. The stages of development of the Department ''Technology of closed nuclear fuel cycle'', created for target training of specialists for the project ''Proryv''. (author)
[en] Existing NESs, which are mainly based on TRs operating in a once through cycle, will continue to represent the main contribution to nuclear energy production for at least several decades. As many national and international studies have shown, major innovations in reactor and NFC technologies are needed in order to achieve sustainable nuclear energy development. New reactors, nuclear fuels and fuel cycle technologies are under development and are being demonstrated worldwide. In these conditions, the evaluation of the status, prospects, benefits and risks associated with innovative technologies is very important. The results of such an evaluation could be useful not only for countries engaged in nuclear power development, but also for newcomer countries evaluating their potential to start a nuclear programme. This case study, performed by the team of Romanian experts from RATEN ICN Pitesti, proposes to apply the KIND approach to evaluate evolutionary and INES technologies comparatively, based on specific KIs. The analyses performed address the status, prospects, benefits and risks related to the development of these technologies, taking into consideration country specifics. The general and specific goals of the case study are in agreement with the KIND objectives.
[en] This article analyzes problems and approaches to modern nuclear power development using closed nuclear fuel cycle and fast reactors. It describes specified technical requirements for nuclear power systems in large-scale nuclear power industry. Targets and scientific problems solved by Rosatom’s “PRORYV” Project which is a part of the Federal State Program “Nuclear Power Technologies of New Generation in the Period of 2010-2015 and up to 2020” are examined. (author)
[en] Demonstrating the production of net electricity and operating with a closed fuel-cycle remain unarguably the crucial steps towards the exploitation of fusion power. These are the aims of a demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) proposed to be built after ITER. This paper briefly describes the DEMO design options that are being considered in Europe for the current conceptual design studies as part of the Roadmap to Fusion Electricity Horizon 2020. These are not intended to represent fixed and exclusive design choices but rather ‘proxies’ of possible plant design options to be used to identify generic design/material issues that need to be resolved in future fusion reactor systems. The materials nuclear design requirements and the effects of radiation damage are briefly analysed with emphasis on a pulsed ‘low extrapolation’ system, which is being used for the initial design integration studies, based as far as possible on mature technologies and reliable regimes of operation (to be extrapolated from the ITER experience), and on the use of materials suitable for the expected level of neutron fluence. The main technical issues arising from the plasma and nuclear loads and the effects of radiation damage particularly on the structural and heat sink materials of the vessel and in-vessel components are critically discussed. The need to establish realistic target performance and a development schedule for near-term electricity production tends to favour more conservative technology choices. The readiness of the technical (physics and technology) assumptions that are being made is expected to be an important factor for the selection of the technical features of the device. (paper)
[en] This article analyses problems and approaches to modern nuclear power development using closed nuclear fuel cycle and fast reactors. It describes specified technical requirements for nuclear power systems in large-scale nuclear power industry. Targets and scientific problems solved by ROSATOM’s “PRORYV” Project which is a part of the Federal State Programme “Nuclear Power Technologies of New Generation in the Period of 2010-2015 and up to 2020” are examined. (author)
[en] In this study the equilibrium closed fuel cycle was simulated for eight selected fast reactors and both U-Pu and Th-U fuel cycles. For simplicity, the fission products were neglected and the reactors were represented only by infinite lattices. It was found that the fuel composition in equilibrium cycle is stabilized and does not differ between two consecutive iso-breeding cycles. The equilibrium fuel composition also determines the excess reactivity. This reactivity should be high enough to accommodate the expected captures of fission products and the presumed neutron leakage. The remaining reactivity, if available, can be applied for additional breeding or burning of selected isotopes. The study provided insight for the differences between the eight fast reactors and also between the U-Pu and Th-U closed fuel cycles. (author)
[en] In the report considered the comparative competitiveness of NPPs and power plants with fossil fuel, renewable energy sources. Considered criteria of competitiveness for NPPs, allowing to ensure the effective development of nuclear power, taking into account of improving the technical and economic performance of alternative generation. Fixed the requirements for the technical and economic parameters of NPP FRs and closed NFC. (author)
[en] The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Simulation System (NFCSS) is a scenario based computer simulation tool that can model various nuclear fuel cycle options in various types of nuclear reactors. It is very efficient and accurate in answering questions such as: the nuclear mineral resources and technical infrastructure needed for the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle; the amounts of used fuel, actinide nuclides and high level waste generated for a given reactor fleet size; and the impact of introducing recycling of used fuel on mineral resource savings and waste minimization. Since the first publication on the NFCSS as IAEA-TECDOC-1535 in 2007, there have been significant improvements in the implementation of the NFCSS, including a new extension to thorium fuel cycles, methods to calculate decay heat and radiotoxicity, and demonstration applications to innovative reactors.
[en] This paper describes the status of the pre-conceptual design activities in Europe to advance the technical basis of the design of a DEMOnstration Fusion Power Plant (DEMO) to come in operation around the middle of this century with the main aims of demonstrating the production of few hundred MWs of net electricity, the feasibility of operation with a closed-tritium fuel cycle, and maintenance systems capable of achieving adequate plant availability. This is expected to benefit as much as possible from the ITER experience, in terms of design, licensing, and construction. Emphasis is on an integrated design approach, based on system engineering, which provides a clear path for urgent R and D and addresses the main design integration issues by taking account critical systems interdependencies and inherent uncertainties of important design assumptions (physics and technology). A design readiness evaluation, together with a technology maturation and down selection strategy are planned through structured and transparent Gate Reviews. By embedding industry experience in the design from the beginning it will ensure that early attention is given to technology readiness and industrial feasibility, costs, maintenance, power conversion, nuclear safety and licensing aspects. (paper)