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[en] For a few years, with the aim of facilitating discussions about the energy and environmental transition, ADEME has been suggesting a scenario imagining the way the energy demand and energy mix from the major energy-consuming sectors (transport, building, agriculture, and industry) are going to follow by 2050. In the industrial sector, the two main factors of the energy demand are: the output levels and the energy efficiency level. Until now, the development prospects of the industrial energy efficiency are relatively well documented, but the production level projections for the French industry are more uncertain. That is why ADEME wanted to get equipped with a modelling tool for the industrial production levels through the demand for materials produced by the following 9 energy-consuming industries: steel, aluminum, clinker, glass, chlorine, ammonia, ethylene, papers and cardboard, and sugar. The aim is to take into account the market changes of these sectors, particularly focusing on the ones that are impacted by the energy transition. In this model, the 6 identified market categories are: (1) Mechanics, electricity, textile, miscellaneous, (2) Chemical products, (3) Packings, (4) Construction industry, (5) Energy production, (6) Transport. The methodological contribution of these works comprises two key elements, that were hardly ever jointly modelled until today: 1. Quantifying the production and consumption of 9 raw materials, as well as of consumer goods and capital goods (intermediate or end products) created from these materials. This quantification includes, among other elements, the import and export dimensions, as well as the recycling process. This quantification was made for the year 2014 from an analysis that cross-checked the main national or international data sources, and it is outlined in an 'input-output table' type matrix representation. 2. Modelling the production paths for the 9 materials studied, from this reference point and formulating assumptions related to the 6 markets. They concern the changing consumer demand, reuse and possible repair of some goods, technological improvements of material balance, incorporation rate of recycled material in manufacturing, but also trends in international trade. This synthesis summarizes the methodological principles selected. In order to make these works available to a wider audience, 2014 data are available in Excel format and a report details the data sources used. This report also contains some analysis on the critical factors needed for the development of the production of the different materials, whether from a technological point of view, in terms of market, or even relocation. At this point in our analysis, forward-looking considerations expressed in these documents aim at promoting exchanges between the different stakeholders and ADEME. They might not be the assumptions that will be retained later on as part of the new prospective scenarios proposed by ADEME, but they rely on orders of magnitude objectified and acknowledged through the cross-checking work of the data sources needed to establish reference data for 2014. Moreover, these works (including the related tools) are available to every entity willing to build its own modellings of the industrial production in regard to the issues at stake with the energy transition and the de-carbonation of the industry. ADEME remains attentive to any suggestion of change or improvement of these first elements, so that the stakeholders better understand what is at stake. Indeed, in view of the steady supply of data and studies related to these matters, some of these sources or references could not be integrated to the production schedules. Thus ADEME intends to continue to develop this tool by integrating new materials, but also by improving the modelling of the market developments in order to integrate concepts such as material replacements, or added-value approach instead of volume approach, in a more structural manner. This study was used to compare several bibliographic sources by combining 'bottom-up' data (for example, LCA of key products) and 'top-down' data (for example, production level on a sector). Some methodological choices were made in order to ensure overall consistency, thus avoiding to question institutional information sources too much. A homogeneous structure was used to handle the key parameters for each sector/market. However, the diversity of the collected data, as well as the complexity of each sector/market, put a brake on the analysis depth. We chose to record as much information as possible, which explains why certain chapters may look uneven
[en] This report provides an independent and forward-looking assessment of the EU's gas supply security by assessing the relevance of the 32 new gas infrastructure projects on the EU's 4. Projects of Common Interest (PCI) list which are eligible for European public funds. It also analyses an additional 5 new natural gas infrastructure projects in the EU that are not part of the PCI list The 32 natural gas infrastructure PCI projects combined are calculated to come at a cost of 29 billion Eur and would add 338 GW capacity to the EU natural gas infrastructure system, which is already approaching 2000 GW of pipeline and LNG terminal capacity. The European Commission's projections currently estimate that achieving the 2030 climate and energy targets will result in a reduction of natural gas by 29% - from 415 bcm in 2015 to 297 bcm in 2030. The report looks at the implications of that scenario on the need for new infrastructure from a gas security of supply point of view, but also considers a wider range of future natural gas demand scenarios and extreme supply disruptions cases. The report concludes that the existing EU gas infrastructure is sufficiently capable of meeting a variety of future gas demand scenarios in the EU28, even in the event of extreme supply disruption cases. This suggests that most of the 32 gas infrastructure projects on the 4. PCI list are unnecessary from a security of supply point of view, and represent a potential over-investment of tens of billions of Eur, supported by European public funds. Key findings: - 1: Under normal market conditions, existing gas infrastructure in 2030 suffices to meet gas demand in both an 'On Track' and 'High Demand' scenario. - 2: Existing gas infrastructure in 2030 is resilient to a wide range of potential extreme supply disruptions, including year-long disruptions from Ukraine, Belarus and Algeria. The loss of supply from Russia or Algeria is compensated by imports from other sources, primarily via existing LNG terminals in the west of Europe. - 3: Investments in projects included in the 4. PCI list are found to be unnecessary to safeguard security of supply in the EU28 and therefore risk to become stranded assets supported by European Union public funds. This remains true in scenarios with higher natural gas demand in 2030. Minor investments in some of the projects included in the 4. PCI list are found to be relevant to solve security of supply issues outside the EU28, in Bosnia-Herzegovina (the model does not select investments in any of the 5 additional projects we have considered on top of the 4. PCI list). However, most of the projects are shown to be superfluous from an economic point of view. Furthermore, from a methodological point of view, the report confirms previous findings that using an integrated gas-electricity approach to infrastructure planning is essential to avoid over-investments
[en] The practical implementation of the principle of optimisation of radiological protection (i.e., ALARA principle) was the subject of two workshops organised in Paris (France) in February2017 and October2018 at the initiative of SFRP within the framework of IRPA. The article summarizes the discussions and conclusions of these two workshops. The search for reasonableness was examined in three sectors: nuclear industry, medical practices and existing exposure situations. In all sectors, the optimisation remains a challenge and experience shows that this is implemented through a deliberative process to achieve a reasonable compromise with all informed parties. This issue was further investigated by three working groups −one for each sector– on the basis of cases studies. It emerges that, in complement to the use of classical tools such as cost-benefit analysis, the implementation of the optimisation principle implies a clear identification of the challenges to be met in order to achieve the best protection in the prevailing circumstances. These challenges may be specific to a type of exposure situation and in some cases to a given situation. The process should also well identify the relevant stakeholders and decision-makers to be involved and determine how they will be involved. A proactive process including development of awareness, empowerment and/or training may be needed. This reflexion deserves to be further developed.
[es]La implantación práctica del principio de optimización de la protección radiológica (es decir, el principio ALARA) ha sido el tema de dos talleres organizados en París (Francia) en febrero de 2017 y en octubre de 2018, por iniciativa de la SFRP, en el marco de IRPA. El artículo resume las discusiones y conclusiones de estos dos talleres. La búsqueda de lo razonable se examinó en tres sectores: industria nuclear, prácticas médicas y situaciones de exposición existente. En todos ellos, la optimización sigue siendo un desafío y la experiencia muestra que se implanta a través de un proceso de deliberación para lograr un compromiso razonable entre todas las partes interesadas. Se organizaron tres grupos de trabajo, uno para cada sector, que investigaron más a fondo este tema apoyándose en el estudio de casos prácticos. Se concluye que, complementariamente al uso de herramientas clásicas, como los análisis coste-beneficio, la implantación del principio de optimización implica identificar claramente las retos que se deben superar para lograr la mejor protección en cada situación (circunstancias dominantes). Estas dificultades pueden ser específicas de un tipo de situación de exposición y, en algunos casos, de una situación dada. Adicionalmente, en el proceso se debería identificar correctamente a las principales partes interesadas y a los responsables de la toma de decisiones que habrían de estar involucrados, y determinar cómo deberían de estarlo. Puede ser necesario un proceso proactivo que fomente la concienciación, el empoderamiento y/o la formación. Esta reflexión merece un desarrollo adicional.
[en] Transparency, pluralistic appraisals, participation in decision-making... How are international, European and French regulations now being applied? Have NGOs been capable of using their rights of access to information and of participation in decision-making to understand nuclear energy and play a role in this field? The French National Association of Local Information Committees and Commissions (ANCCLI) has drawn up an inventory of the regulatory tools designed for this purpose. How have 'civil society' and the nuclear industry put these tools to use as genuine means of action? What positive points come to light? And what are the points to watch and to improve? Between the (oft emphasized) urgency of finding a solution and the necessity of taking time (to obtain information, improve skills and confer with stakeholders), 'civil society' expects more sincerity, even humility, from players in the nuclear industry. Above all, NGOs want to see to it that their participation carries weight when decisions are made. (author)
[en] The combination of the supply chain with digital technologies gives birth to the concept of 'extended enterprise' in which data irrigates first all the entities of a company and then all the partner companies. The concept of extended enterprises implies collaborative platforms, interfaces to enable company's software to communicate with the platform and reinforced cyber-security to ensure confidentiality and no intrusion. EDF has launched its own collaborative platform that it shares with all the participants of a project. (A.C.)
[en] In its report in October 2018, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emphasized that the share of nuclear power in the world's energy mix must increase. It pointed out the major obstacle to doing this: 'The current deployment pace of nuclear energy is constrained by social acceptability [...]. Though comparative risk assessment shows health risks are low [...], the political processes triggered by societal concerns depend on the country-specific means of managing the political debates around technological choices and their environmental impacts'. Unprecedented efforts are being made to move civilization from one model to another within a single generation. Societal obstruction stems, as the report recalls, from erroneous perceptions. Overcoming it, which would open the way for rapid, significant advances, should be a priority, which is not now the case. The parties in charge of lifting these obstacles seem to have made them heavier. A few persons (in particular members of the association Voix du Nucleaire) have decided to tackle the herculean feat of, above all, 'informing', a task that most stakeholders have sidestepped. Will our children realize that we knew this choice was difficult and that this was the reason for doing something? (author)
[en] Over the course of this conference we will hear about future technologies. We have already heard about climate change. I will concentrate on what is happening now. I come from the World Nuclear Association. I am representing the global nuclear industry. Many other organizations here are representing governments. It is, I think, timely and good to have industry talking about its experience and what the industry can do. The World Nuclear Association has 184 members, in 43 countries. The global nuclear industry is committed to delivering what it needs to do to save our planet from climate change. Our technology is ready, our supply chain is ready and our people are ready. But to achieve the targets, to have success, we also need support from governments; otherwise the nuclear option will maybe fade away or not deliver its full potential. We see that nuclear is moving higher up on the agenda. I would like to give some examples as further evidence that nuclear is now central and included in all discussions on the issues of energy and climate.
[en] The principle of extractive transparency is an emerging obligation in contemporary extractive law, aiming at good governance in the exploitation of mineral and oil resources through, in particular, the requirements of extractive disclosure and extractive traceability. Originally derived from the soft law legitimized by international practice, the principle has gained in importance by its consecration in European positive law, giving a binding and transnational character to the obligation. The extractive sector making the subject of scandals with transnational security impulses (looting of nature, underdevelopment and social insecurity, corruption and money laundering, armed conflicts, terrorism, immigration, environmental and human crimes), the European Union policies aiming at monitoring this sector are tools for reducing transnational insecurity. Article published in 'Paix et Securite Europeenne et Internationale' - PSEI, no. 15. Full text available online at: http://revel.unice.fr/psei/index.html?id=2380
[fr]Le principe de transparence extractive est une obligation en emergence dans le droit extractif contemporain, visant la bonne gouvernance dans l'exploitation des ressources minieres, petrolieres et gazieres a travers notamment, les exigences de divulgation extractive et de tracabilite extractive. a l'origine issu de la soft law legitimee par la pratique internationale, le principe a gagne en importance par sa consecration en droit positif europeen, donnant un caractere contraignant et transnational a l'obligation. Le secteur des industries extractives faisant l'objet de scandales aux elans securitaires transnationaux (pillage de la nature, sous-developpement et insecurite sociale, corruption et blanchiment d'argent, conflits armes, terrorisme, immigration, crimes environnementaux et humains), les politiques de l'Union europeenne visant la surveillance de ce secteur constituent des outils pour reduire l'insecurite transnationale. Article publie dans 'Paix et Securite Europeenne et Internationale' - PSEI, no. 15. Texte integral disponible a: http://revel.unice.fr/psei/index.html?id=2380
[en] Nowadays, there are a lot of defense mechanisms to secure IT-systems against Cyber attacks. Thus, Cyber attacks have to be more sophisticated than they used to be in order to stay undetected as long as possible and to bypass defense mechanisms. As a result, current threats frequently use steganographic techniques to hide malicious functions in a harmless looking carrier. In  an attack for Siemens S7 Sirnatic Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) is presented, where the control logic of the PLC is modified while the source code which the PLC presents the engineering station is retained. As a result, the PLCs functionality is different from the control logic presented to the engineering station. Furthermore, steganographic techniques are frequently used to hide information in media files.