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[en] It is generally recognized that the lack of adequate rules and accepted definitions of liability in the case of nuclear accidents constitutes a serious drawback to the growth of the atomic energy industry. This applies both t o national undertakings and, more particularly, to bilateral or international operations such as those carried out under the auspices of IAEA. The problems will grow even more complicated if countries adopt differing standards. The initial programme of IAEA therefore stresses the need for the establishment of international standards and definitions of areas of responsibility which would do much to harmonize national practices now being formulated in many countries. In order to initiate studies of this problem, the Director General has decided t o call a number of experts, representing various legal systems, together, and entrust them with the task of examining this question. He has appointed Ambassador Paul Ruegger (Switzerland) as Chairman of the panel
[en] This Decree issued in implementation of Section 7 of the Atomic Energy Act of 25th October 1957 sets up the Atomic Energy Commission. The Commission, composed of not more than 5 members appointed by the Council of State for a period of 3 years, is subordinate to the Ministry of Trade and Industry. In the field of Atomic Energy, its task is to make proposals, to give expert opinions, to deal with questions relating to international co-operation, to ensure liaison with scientific and technical organisations and industrial institutions whose activities coincide with its own sphere of activity. The Commission must submit a report on its activities to the Ministry of Trade and Industry each year. (NEA)
[fr]Le present decret pris en application de l'article 7 de la Loi sur l'Energie Atomique du 25 octobre 1957 institue la Commission de l'Energie Atomique. La Commission, composee d'au plus 5 membres nommes par le Conseil d'Etat pour 3 ans, est subordonnee au Ministere du Commerce et de l'Industrie. Son role est, dans le domaine de l'energie atomique, de faire des propositions, de donner des avis, de traiter des questions relevant de la cooperation internationale et d'assurer une liaison avec les organisations scientifiques et techniques et les entreprises industrielles dont les activites sont de sa competence. La Commission doit soumettre un rapport annuel sur ses activites au Ministere du Commerce et de l'Industrie
[en] The International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1958 a Manual entitled ''Safe Handling of Radioisotopes'' (Safety Series No. 1 - STI/PUB/1), based on the work of an international panel convened by the Agency. As recommended by that panel and approved by the Agency's Board of Governors, this Addendum has now been prepared, primarily as a supplement to the Manual. It contains information necessary to medical officers concerned with the implementation of the controls given in the Manual. In addition, it is intended to serve as a brief introduction to the medical problems encountered in radiological protection work and to the methods of resolving them. As in the case of the Manual itself, the information given in this Addendum is particularly relevant to the problems encountered by the small user of radioisotopes. Although the basic principles set forth in it apply to all work with radiation sources, the Addendum is not intended to serve as a radiological protection manual for use in reactor installations or large-scale nuclear industry, where more specialized techniques and information are required.
[en] The hazards of ionizing radiation exist they can not be eliminated altogether. But what human skill and organization can perform is to eliminate as far as possible the chances of exposure and hence the possibility of harm. Of this one can be reasonably certain: that the employment of atomic energy to promote man's peaceful progress need not be attended by an impairment of his health or genetic future, that it is possible to devise and adopt adequate measures of safety. This task has two broad aspects: to ensure that people engaged in atomic energy activities are not exposed to excessive radiation in the course of their work and to protect the world's population in general from the radiations given off by the radioactive material produced by the atomic energy industry. The first requirement has to be met by the adoption of protective measures in all atomic energy establishments and laboratories where radioactive materials are used, and an important part of the Agency's work is devoted to the formulation of these measures. Perhaps more important - at least from the public point of view - is the work to ensure the safety of people in general. And the basic aim in that respect is to see to it that the development of atomic energy applications does not lead to an increase in the levels of radiation in man's immediate environment
[en] The International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1958 a Manual entitled ''Safe Handling of Radioisotopes'' (Safety Series No. 1 - STI/PUB/1), based on the work of an international panel convened by the Agency. As recommended by that panel and approved by the Agency's Board of Governors, this Addendum has now been prepared, primarily as a supplement to the Manual. It contains technical information necessary for the implementation of the controls given in the Manual. In addition, it is intended to serve as a brief introduction to the technical problems encountered in radiological protection work and to the methods of resolving them. As in the case of the Manual itself, the information given in this Addendum is particularly relevant to the problems encountered by the small user of radioisotopes. Although the basic principles set forth in it apply to all work with radiation sources, the Addendum is not intended to serve as a radiological protection manual for use in reactor installations or large-scale nuclear industry, where more specialized techniques and information are required.
[en] This directory contains brief presentations of various types of nuclear reactors or piles. It indicates their location, main characteristics and status (operational, in construction, projected, studied). Several types are addressed: natural uranium-fueled reactors moderated with graphite or with heavy water (research piles, power reactors), enriched uranium-fueled reactors moderated with ordinary water or with other products (research piles and power reactors), homogeneous thermal reactors (research piles, power reactors), fast breeder reactors (research piles, power reactors), and non classified reactors (supposed research piles and power reactors). An analytic list indicates the moderator, fuel-type (either natural or enriched), nationality, location, status (operational, in construction, projected, studied or dismantled), reactor name or names. An alphabetic index of each reactor name, location and constructor is provided. Tables give some limited information which enable comparison between reactors in terms of types and fuel elements
[en] The program of work for 1961 which the International Atomic Energy Agency's Board of Governors has presented to the Agency's General Conference for final approval provides for steady amplification of its work in technical assistance to specific projects, training of scientific personnel and scientific research. These activities and certain others are of special interest to those areas of the world that are less advanced in the utilization of atomic energy. This is in accord with the Agency's Statute which requires that it bear in mind 'the special needs of the under-developed areas of the world'. At the same time, the Board indicated that the 1961 program 'provides for activities intended to create a basis for general progress in the safe utilization of atomic energy for peaceful purposes which is of concern to all Member States. Thus the delay in the advent of generally economic nuclear power is used to build up the necessary technological infrastructure in the less developed countries and to establish an international framework of norms and regulations which an orderly and safe development of widespread nuclear industries will require'. Some highlights of the 1961 program are presented
[en] After a brief overview of the evolution of extraction industries after the Second World War, notably in the field of uranium ores, and more recently thorium, the author discusses the diversity of ores and of conditions of exploitation of deposits. She comments the locations and the geological nature of these different types of deposits in the USA and in Canada (Northern America is the main producer), in other countries (Brazil, Argentina, African countries, Australia, India, Indonesia, Asia, Europe), and more particularly in France. She proposes an overview of technologies used to extract the ore, to process and to physically and chemically concentrate the ores for uranium production. She mentions installations, evokes their relative economic importance and their possible impact on local and regional infrastructures. She finally outlines that reserves appear to be very important. Article published in 'Revue de geographie de Lyon', vol. 33, no. 2, 1958. pp. 103-117.
[fr]Presque inexistante avant la deuxieme guerre mondiale, l'extraction des minerais d'uranium - et accessoirement de thorium - prend une importance sans cesse grandissante. Ces minerais sont tres varies. Les faibles teneurs en metal limitent souvent, malgre l'interet politique, le nombre des exploitations. Les formations mineralisees sont tres diverses bien qu'apparaisse une predominance des terrains precambriens et des regions primaires. Si l'on excepte l'U.R.S.S. et ses satellites, a la production mal connue, Canada, U.S.A., Congo Belge, Afrique Australe, Australie et, en Europe, France et Portugal sont actuellement les principaux producteurs. Les minerais d'uranium sont concentres avant d'arriver a l'usine metallurgique. La production et le traitement des minerais ont suscite dans certaines regions des espoirs de mise en valeur. Par dela la recherche et la production de l'uranium une geographie de l'energie nucleaire commence a s'esquisser. Article publie dans la Revue de geographie de Lyon, vol. 33, no. 2, 1958. pp. 103-117.
[en] The present characteristics can be summarized in one word: expansion. Impelled by the CEA, but also by such organisations as the Electricite de France and the Merchant Marine, the French nuclear effort for the years 1957-1961 reaches about 600 thousand millions francs; over half this sum will be spent by chemical industry on research, pilot installations, construction of plants and delivery. The aim is to work efficiently, quickly and profitably. This is achieved through close collaboration between the big state organisations and private industry. It is chiefly along the following lines that this large scale effort is carried on: - thorough chemical treatment of increasing tonnages of ores from the French Union, with the aim of producing pure, plentiful and cheap uranium. - careful preparation of nuclear fuels, economical and perfectly adapted to the various types of reactor in operation or under construction. - Further treatment of irradiated fuels to extract the plutonium completely, as well as the uranium and certain fission products. industrial manufacture of material of nuclear purity or corrosion resistant required by the technology of energy producing or research reactors. - Supply to the many foreign or French users of isotopes and radioactive tracers required by medicine, industry and agriculture in ever-increasing numbers. - Meticulous chemical treatment of gaseous or liquid effluent in strictly controlled stations in order that reactors and their annexes will be perfectly safe to use. This account shows the great extent of the effort laid out by a young, energetic chemical industry in full swing. Having made sure of its techniques and set up numerous installations it is fully in a position to confront the French atomic programme. In addition it is able and anxious to associate with the developments of foreign atomic industry, especially EURATOM and Eurochemic. (author)
[fr]Un mot en resume les caracteristiques presentes: l'expansion. Sous l'impulsion du CEA, mais aussi de maitres d'oeuvres tels qu'Electricite de France et la Marine Marchande, l'effort nucleaire fran is atteint pour les annees 1957-1961, environ 600 milliards de francs: plus de la moitie de cette somme sera depensee par l'industrie chimique en recherches, installations pilotes, constructions d'usines et livraisons. Faire bien, vite et rentable sont les buts recherches. Ces objectifs sont atteints grace a une collaboration intime des grands services de l'etat et de l'industrie privee. Ce gros effort s'exerce principalement dans les voies suivantes: - Un traitement chimique pousse de tonnages croissants des minerais de l'Union fran ise, visant a produire un uranium pur, abondant et bon marche. - Une preparation soigneuse de combustibles nucleaires economiques et parfaitement adaptes aux divers types de reacteurs en fonctionnement ou en construction. - Un retraitement des combustibles irradies pour en extraire le plutonium de facon complete ainsi que l'uranium et certains produits de fission. - Une fabrication industrielle des materiaux nucleairement purs ou resistants a la corrosion exiges par la technologie des reacteurs producteurs d'energie et de recherches. - La fourniture aux multiples utilisateurs etrangers et fran is d'isotopes et de traceurs radioactifs reclames par la medecine, l'industrie et l'agriculture en nombre toujours croissant. - Un traitement chimique meticuleux des effluents gazeux ou liquides dans des stations au controle rigoureux afin de rendre les reacteurs et leurs annexes parfaitement surs d'emploi. Cet expose aura montre l'ampleur de l'effort deploye par une industrie chimique nucleaire jeune, dynamique et en plein essor. Ayant assure ses techniques, realise de nombreuses installations, elle est largement en etat de faire face au programme atomique fran is. En outre, elle est capable et desireuse d'etre associee aux developpements de l'industrie atomique etrangere notamment dans te cadre de l'Euratom et d'Eurochemic. (auteur)