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[en] The LNG industry has entered a new step of its development, faster and more complex. The time parameter, the huge investments and the uncertainties relative to the demand growth are some of the factors that control its evolution. How the emergence of 'international price' signals will influence this activity? What supply-demand status can be foreseen from now to 2015? What role LNG would be able to play in terms of modulation management? What are the impacts of environmental constraints on LNG infrastructures? These are the different points discussed during this workshop by the five participants, specialists of the LNG questions. (J.S.)
[en] This paper discussed the barriers and drivers for the implementation of biorefinery technology in the forestry industry. A multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methodology was used by a panel of industry experts. The objective, drivers and barriers, and the decision structure and weighting procedure were established during a pre-panel phase. An analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was then applied to compare qualitative criteria. Pair-wise criteria were used to determine the importance of each driver and barrier. Drivers for the implementation of biorefineries included the opportunity to ensure short-term profitability; the provision of raw materials at competitive prices; potential financial incentives; and the opportunity to transform the forestry business model and increase its market value. Barriers included uncertainty in relation to government policies for biorefineries; high technology risks; the need for partnerships; and the fact that many industry members favour short-term decision-making. Results of the study showed that the most significant barrier was related to risk. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.
[en] The US LNG market represents today only 15 million tons per year but it is growing up rapidly and should reach 75 million tons per year in the next ten years. According to Cambridge Energy Research, LNG imports will represent 18% of the US gas resources in 2015 with respect to 3% today, and in 2010 LNG will represent 30% of the world natural gas trade. For these reasons, the Suez group has planned to acquire two offshore gas terminals, i.e. LNG tanker ships fitted with a gasification plant, to supply its Everett terminal on the US East coast and a future terminal in Florida. In both cases, the investment is the same as for an onshore terminal facility. Short paper. (J.S.)
[en] The International Group of Liquefied Natural Gas Importers (GIIGNL) is a non-profit organization founded in December of 1971. It is composed of 56 member companies from 18 different countries across the world and involved in the importation of Liquefied Natural Gas. The main objective of the GIIGNL is to promote the development of activities related to LNG: purchasing, importing, processing, transportation, handling, re-gasification and various uses of LNG. For this purpose, the GIIGNL is particularly involved in promoting the state-of-the art technology in the LNG industry, in communicating about the economic fundamentals of the industry, in enhancing facility operations, in diversifying contractual techniques, and in developing industry positions to be taken in international agencies. As a member of the IOPC Fund since June 2007, the GIIGNL prepared this LNG overview in order to offer a better understanding to state delegations about this specific product and its market and to contribute to the debate on the implementation of the HNS Convention. the first chapter constitutes an introduction to the LNG Industry: presentation of an LNG Chain, overview of the global LNG trade and its growth rate, type of contracts, LNG tankers and technical transportation constraints, liquefaction and re-gasification plants around the world. The second chapter focuses on some singularities of the LNG industry that differentiate LNG from other Hazardous and Noxious Substances: LNG, a clean and unique product and activity, high standards and firm regulations concerning security and maritime safety, high level of investment required for an LNG chain, DES and FOB, the fundamental Incoterms of LNG sales and purchase. The third chapter presents the HNS Convention as potentially applicable to the LNG market: a two tier compensation regime - a new perspective for the LNG industry, a potential impact on LNG sales and purchase agreements, the importance of global HNS ratification within LNG countries. The last chapter concludes with the GIIGNL proposals regarding the LNG contribution to the HNS Fund issue: the GIIGNL contribution to the IOPC Fund Assembly from 2007, the purpose of the IOPC Fund HNS Focus Group and the new Protocol proposal (which would amend the Convention regarding the LNG contribution), the potential solutions explored by the GIIGNL regarding the LNG contribution issue and in particular the GIIGNL proposal for this issue
[en] Natural gas is an abundant energy source but reserves are more and more located far away from consuming markets. This situation leads to an increased demand in LNG and to a rise of prices which corresponds to the massive investment made by gas producers and LNG plant operators to increase their production capacity. Today's challenge of Total Group is to anticipate the future LNG demand, to increase its gas reserves, and to increase its production and gasification capacities. (J.S.)
[en] Everywhere in Europe the oil companies are selling their refineries. Even if they work at full capacity, the interest of the European market is far below the one of Asia where demand is in full expansion and Middle-East where the raw matter is abundant. The world refining capacity is of 86 million barrel per day and should reach 106 million barrel per day in 2020. (J.S.)
[en] The acknowledgement of industrial installations as complex systems in the early 1980s outstands as a milestone in the path to operational safety. Process plants are social-technical complex systems of a dynamic nature, whose properties depend not only on their components, but also on the inter-relations among them. A comprehensive assessment of operational safety requires a systemic approach, i.e. an integrated framework that includes all the relevant factors influencing safety. Risk analysis methodologies and safety management systems head the list of methods that point in this direction, but they normally require important plant resources. As a consequence, their use is frequently restricted to especially dangerous processes often driven by compliance with legal requirements. In this work a new safety index for the chemical industry, termed the 'Proceso' Index (standing for the Spanish terms for PROCedure for the Evaluation of Operational Safety), has been developed. PROCESO is based on the principles of systems theory, has a tree-like structure and considers 25 areas to guide the review of plant safety. The method uses indicators whose respective weight values have been obtained via an expert judgement technique. This paper describes the steps followed to develop this new Operational Safety Index, explains its structure and illustrates its application to process plants
[en] This paper proposes a new methodological approach to identify market competitive structure, applying usage situation concept in positioning analysis. Dimensions used by consumer to classify products are identified using Correspondence Analysis and competitive groups are formed. Results are validated with Discriminant Analysis. (Author) 23 refs
[en] A case study on the safety distance assessment of a chemical industry park in Shanghai, China, is presented in this paper. Toxic releases were taken into consideration. A safety criterion based on frequency and consequence of major hazard accidents was set up for consequence analysis. The exposure limits for the accidents with the frequency of more than 10-4, 10-5-10-4 and 10-6-10-5 per year were mortalities of 1% (or SLOT), 50% (SLOD) and 75% (twice of SLOD) respectively. Accidents with the frequency of less than 10-6 per year were considered incredible and ignored in the consequence analysis. Taking the safety distance of all the hazard installations in a chemical plant into consideration, the results based on the new criterion were almost smaller than those based on LC50 or SLOD. The combination of the consequence and risk based results indicated that the hazard installations in two of the chemical plants may be dangerous to the protection targets and measurements had to be taken to reduce the risk. The case study showed that taking account of the frequency of occurrence in the consequence analysis would give more feasible safety distances for major hazard accidents and the results were more comparable to those calculated by risk assessment.
[en] We strongly suggest an idea we call Global Scope Assessment (GSA) on the basis of popular Life Cycle Assessment and Environomics. It is used to justify the industry development pattern in a region (country) considering the specific regional resources conditions. In terms of GSA, the greatest synthetic benefit is expected while taking full advantage of regional comparative superiority and the worldwide distribution of related industry links. As an example, we choose Chinese paper industry to be the subject for application of GSA and the optimal industry links distribution among related countries is obtained. Our study indicates that the adjustment of industry structure should be a fair approach to relieve the pressure from environment and resources and to balance the contradiction between development and resources