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[en] Food quality and safety are among the most important criteria for the evaluation of consumable fresh fruits and vegetables. Food irradiation is a promising new food safety technology that can eliminate disease-causing microorganisms (such as E. coli and Salmonella) from foods. However, through irradiation process, the food nutritional value is essentially unchanged and the food does not become radioactive. The development of food irradiation detection methods is useful for regulatory compliance purposes, and is an active area of investigation. Detection methods would likely accelerate approval of additional food irradiation applications and enhance international trade of irradiated foods. In this work, a food nondestructive irradiation detection method is proposed. The method utilizes the image processing procedures to facilitate the discrimination of the irradiated food. The experiment has been conducted on database of apples’ images which are captured before and after exposing the apples samples to different doses of Gamma rays. The experiment has been conducted on database of apple’s images which are captured before and after exposing. The image analysis shows that the radiation causes a distinct gradient in color throughout the irradiated food. This work proposes two methods, which are depends on statistical calculation and Zernike moments, for extracting the color changes and converting them into features vectors. These features vectors are utilized by the classifiers (Linear Discriminate Analysis and Support Vector Machine) to identify the irradiated food. The proposed algorithms prove good identification of the irradiation process by which the job of “Quality “Assurance Engineers” at the radiation units is facilitated. The proposed methods achieve about 87% and 94% success recognition rate of the irradiated food respectively. Finally, the proposed methods are simple and cheap and have been validated by physical analytical method (ESR). So, it overcomes the disadvantages of the known methods which are complex, destructive, and very costly
[en] The 2016 Nuclear Industry Summit convened in Washington on March 29-31, 2016, in conjunction with the 2016 Nuclear Security Summit. It was attended by approximately 200 leaders from the global nuclear industry with significant experience and responsibility for the operation of nuclear installations, production and management of nuclear materials, and for international nuclear cooperation and trade. The Nuclear Industry Summit concluded a process that started in 2010 and brought increased focus to the field of cyber security. This paper describes especially the work of the NIS 2016 Working Group on Managing Cyber Threat. (author)
[en] In recent years, nuclear industry has used many digital systems for instrumentation and control such as nuclear protection system which is safety critical. If these safety critical systems had serious failures, the consequences would have significant effects on the public health and wealth. Thus, safety critical systems must be of sufficiently high quality to assure safety and reliability. For that reason, the safety and reliability of the system must be considered important when a system is developed. Safety analysis has been performed using several analysis methods. However, existing formal methods in view of safety analysis have some limitations. For example, safety checklists which are developed before are not complete, thus we cannot detect errors in requirements specification. To overcome these limitations, we suggest a new method in this work. A new method is proposed to perform safety analysis of the system in requirements phase. This method is composed of two steps. The first step is to convert the formal requirements specification based on statechart to SCR tables and ISO (Input-State-Output) tables. The second step is to detect errors formally in requirements specification using the SCR tables developed before and the ISO tables which have been newly developed in this work. This method was applied to Water Level Monitoring System (WLMS) and Digital Online Active Test - Plant Protection System (DOAT-PPS). Using the suggested method, we could model the system requirements visually, and check the system formally with safety checklists. As the result of the safety analysis, two errors were detected in WLMS, and three kinds of errors were detected in DOAT-PPS. However, these errors could be resolved easily. In conclusion, we come to know that formal safety analysis is necessary in order to improve the safety of safety critical systems, and that we can reduce the cost and efforts through the method which is newly developed in this work. Additionally, we can overcome the limitations of existing formal methods in view of safety analysis using our suggested method and also human errors that can be made in manual process by using supporting tools
[en] The U.S. Nuclear Regulation Commission’s (NRC’s) regulation 10 CFR part 26, highlighted the importance of FFD programs in nuclear facilities. To comply with the NRC regulation, nuclear industries implemented a drug & alcohol test and fatigue management (through reporting an employee’s working hours). Detection comes with time delays and no reliable tools are available to measure actual fatigue. To address these limitations, this study proposed to develop a classification model for identifying potentially unfit for duty workers (Alcohol-use, Sleep-deprivation, High stress, Depression and anxiety) based on bio-signals. This research investigated the feasibility of classifying a worker’s FFD by using power spectrum analysis on bio-signals data. The analyses were based on the measurements on independent variables (76 EEG indicators, 64 ECG indicators, 2 BVP, 2 GSR, 2 Respiration and 2 BPHEG) and dependent variable (subject’s fitness status: normal, alcohol-use, sleep-deprived, heavy stress, moderate depression and anxiety) using MANOVA. The results showed the resting states (Eye closed and Eye Open) for bio-signal indicators have a statistically significant difference for at-risk students compared to healthy college students.
[en] Aim of study: To analyze the susceptibility of Eucalyptus and hybrids species to Leptocybe invasa through field assays. Area of study: The north of the Argentine province of Misiones (Colonia Delicia). Material and methods: A total of 11 Eucalyptus species and 2 hybrids were surveyed for damage and severity of L. invasa infestation. Six evaluations were made during an annual period. Main results: The susceptibility ranking to L. invasa from highest to lowest was E. tereticornis > E. propinqua > E. dunni > E. camaldulensis > E. grandis > E. major > E. longistrata >E. grandis × E. camaldulensis. However, E. moluccana, E. urophylla × E. grandis and E. urophylla were tolerant to L. invasa. Research highlights: This study suggests that in Misiones, E. tereticornis is the most sensible eucalyptus species to gall wasp attack, whereas other species and hybrids presented low damage levels or tolerance to L. invasa region.
[en] Aim of study: To better estimate the annual allowable cut reserve (AACR), taking into consideration the endemic windthrows (EW), we combined a series of existing algorithms into a coherent methodology to use the data available at district level, without any additional fieldworks. Area of study: The algorithm was tested on the EW occurred in the last 20 years in Brosteni FD (Eastern Carpathians, Romania) that covers 21,013 ha and we found that every year from an AAC of 37,000 m3 no more than 2,700 m3 shall be spared for EW that might occur next year. Material and methods: We considered three EW enabling factors (stand slenderness, location on pits and mounds, and the vicinity of canopy gap) and three contingency tables of the EW produced between 1999 and 2008, one for each 40-year age group. Then we calculated a Bayesian model for all six permutations of enabling factors, each of them being tested on the data referring to 2008-2017 period. Results: Plugging the posterior EW likelihoods into a Markov chains (MC) model, we produced a formula that enables a better estimation of the optimal AACR that could be replaced with salvage cuttings every next year. Other options of using the EW likelihoods are also presented at length, such as the type of age-class structure that requires no AACR, that is a “U” shape age structure, as well as a rough assessment of the additional demand for seedlings needed to re-plant the stands affected by EW. The relatively short period of time the input data refer to, which is ten years, equals the time window of the forest planning and this parity allows a ten-year forecast period, enough for modeling the stationary age-structure of even-aged forests. Research highlights: A new model for optimizing the annual allowable cut (AAC) in even-age forests in the context of endemic windthrows (EW) scenario has been developed and evaluated.
[en] Aim of study: The objective of this study was to present statistical information pertaining to recurrent inconsistencies found in the literature of the last 25 years that involve calculation of the GR and the errors that this may entail when interpreting the seed vigor of different botanical materials. Materiales y métodos: After filtering articles that did not present numerical results or in which the application of Maguire's formula was not clearly indicated, a total of 124 papers were ultimately used in this study. Main results: Germination rate (GR) represents the potential of seeds to germinate and, along with germination percentage (GP), are the two most important measurements when evaluating seed quality. The correct calculation of GR allows the seeds classification according to their vigor and capacity to produce healthy seedlings, so it is very important to rely on the adequate mathematical formula for this purpose. According to the formula developed by Maguire, this parameter is calculated by the sum of values obtained when dividing the GP at different times (i.e. daily) by the total time elapsed since the start of the test. We have found from the relevant literature that different authors have been using different ways of applying the formula, which makes it difficult to directly compare the results. Research highlights: A total of 54.8 % of the papers reviewed, belonging mainly to the theme of forestry, presented objectionable application of the formula. Publication of this warning may help to reduce the occurrence of this situation in the future.
[en] The topic of innovation has often been labelled a “buzzword”. Something that attempts to offer businesses a competitive advantage but in reality, fails to deliver tangible outcomes Conversations around innovation have historically focused on the importance and need of innovation. It’s a word that brings a lot of expectation to leaders and their employees but what is lacking from most books, blog articles and videos is a focus on how to innovate. Without focus it can become arbitrary and in some cases confusing. Organisations not only need to create a culture of innovation, where usual ways of working are challenged, and new ideas are generated but they need to address the skills and competencies associated with innovation; thus creating a roadmap for employees to develop. The people plan for innovation needs to aligned with the wider company strategy – only then are teams able to allow innovation to thrive. This presentation shall address the following: • How to innovate: using examples from within EDF Energy • Setting up a strategic approach to innovation: by using a virtual reality (VR) case study that was used within EDF Energy’s nuclear fleet we will discuss a methodology for teams to innovate in alignment with company strategy • Enabling teams to innovate: How you can set up your team and enable innovation. (author)
[en] The paper describes how the development of some information technologies can further contribute to the safety of nuclear facilities and their competitiveness. After repositioning the nuclear industry engineering practices in their historical and economic context, the paper describes five engineering practices or use cases widely developed especially in the aerospace industry: requirement management, business process enforcement by digitization of data and processes, facilities configuration management, engineering information unification, and digital licensing. Information technology (IT) plays a mandatory role for driving this change since IT is now mature enough to handle the level of complexity the nuclear industry requires. While the detailed evaluation of the expecting gains in cost decrease or safety increase can be difficult to quantify, the paper presents illustrative benefits reachable by a development of these practices. (author)
[en] Decommissioning represents a set of risks that differ from facility design and construction, operations, or maintenance. An informal poll was taken querying experienced facility decommissioning project and program managers in government and private business sectors about top decommissioning risks. The poll considered experience in nuclear, fossil fuel, and oil and gas projects in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. A classic risk assessment process was performed, where the likelihood and consequence(s) of impacts, typical or most commonly used controls, and the most effective mitigation strategies for various risks were identified. The risks that polled with the highest rankings were identified as the 'Top 10' decommissioning risks. Roger VanScoy stated 'Knowing our risks provides opportunities to manage and improve our chances of success.' The purpose of this effort was to identify and share the 'Top 10' decommissioning risks with those in the nuclear, fossil fuel, and oil and gas industry to help anticipate and manage those risks more effectively, avoid or reduce the potential consequences of the risks, and improve the chances of project success. Douglas Adams said: 'Human beings, who are almost unique in having the ability to learn from the experience of others, are also remarkable for their apparent disinclination to do so'. The information provided shares experiences, knowledge, and effective mitigation strategies from those with successful decommissioning experience so that others can learn and avoid the adverse consequences of risks inherent with decommissioning projects. (authors)