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[en] In the late 1980s, the country 's oil refineries played an important role in enhancing the economic potential of not only our republic, but also the former Soviet Union.although 4.4 percent of all oil processed at that time was processed here, the industry was ahead of the former soviet oil refining industry by many indicators.Thus, the catalytic cracking and coking facilities at oil refineries of republic were 2.2-3.6 times more powerful than oil refining.The oil industry is one of the main environmental pollution enterprises.Practically the main oil industry facilities -oil extraction, transportation, processing and delivery of products to consumers process are potential sources of environmental pollution.in general, groundwater extracted during oil extraction is a source of anthropogenic radioactive contamination.More precisely, one of the ways in which natural radionuclides enter the environment is also associated with oil production and refining.Tense radioecological conditions have also been reported in some chemical and petrochemical industries.In our country for many years, in some cases, non-observance of elementary sanitary norms during oil production has caused the creation of oil and water pollution zones in separate places.
[en] For a few years, with the aim of facilitating discussions about the energy and environmental transition, ADEME has been suggesting a scenario imagining the way the energy demand and energy mix from the major energy-consuming sectors (transport, building, agriculture, and industry) are going to follow by 2050. In the industrial sector, the two main factors of the energy demand are: the output levels and the energy efficiency level. Until now, the development prospects of the industrial energy efficiency are relatively well documented, but the production level projections for the French industry are more uncertain. That is why ADEME wanted to get equipped with a modelling tool for the industrial production levels through the demand for materials produced by the following 9 energy-consuming industries: steel, aluminum, clinker, glass, chlorine, ammonia, ethylene, papers and cardboard, and sugar. The aim is to take into account the market changes of these sectors, particularly focusing on the ones that are impacted by the energy transition. In this model, the 6 identified market categories are: (1) Mechanics, electricity, textile, miscellaneous, (2) Chemical products, (3) Packings, (4) Construction industry, (5) Energy production, (6) Transport. The methodological contribution of these works comprises two key elements, that were hardly ever jointly modelled until today: 1. Quantifying the production and consumption of 9 raw materials, as well as of consumer goods and capital goods (intermediate or end products) created from these materials. This quantification includes, among other elements, the import and export dimensions, as well as the recycling process. This quantification was made for the year 2014 from an analysis that cross-checked the main national or international data sources, and it is outlined in an 'input-output table' type matrix representation. 2. Modelling the production paths for the 9 materials studied, from this reference point and formulating assumptions related to the 6 markets. They concern the changing consumer demand, reuse and possible repair of some goods, technological improvements of material balance, incorporation rate of recycled material in manufacturing, but also trends in international trade. This synthesis summarizes the methodological principles selected. In order to make these works available to a wider audience, 2014 data are available in Excel format and a report details the data sources used. This report also contains some analysis on the critical factors needed for the development of the production of the different materials, whether from a technological point of view, in terms of market, or even relocation. At this point in our analysis, forward-looking considerations expressed in these documents aim at promoting exchanges between the different stakeholders and ADEME. They might not be the assumptions that will be retained later on as part of the new prospective scenarios proposed by ADEME, but they rely on orders of magnitude objectified and acknowledged through the cross-checking work of the data sources needed to establish reference data for 2014. Moreover, these works (including the related tools) are available to every entity willing to build its own modellings of the industrial production in regard to the issues at stake with the energy transition and the de-carbonation of the industry. ADEME remains attentive to any suggestion of change or improvement of these first elements, so that the stakeholders better understand what is at stake. Indeed, in view of the steady supply of data and studies related to these matters, some of these sources or references could not be integrated to the production schedules. Thus ADEME intends to continue to develop this tool by integrating new materials, but also by improving the modelling of the market developments in order to integrate concepts such as material replacements, or added-value approach instead of volume approach, in a more structural manner. This study was used to compare several bibliographic sources by combining 'bottom-up' data (for example, LCA of key products) and 'top-down' data (for example, production level on a sector). Some methodological choices were made in order to ensure overall consistency, thus avoiding to question institutional information sources too much. A homogeneous structure was used to handle the key parameters for each sector/market. However, the diversity of the collected data, as well as the complexity of each sector/market, put a brake on the analysis depth. We chose to record as much information as possible, which explains why certain chapters may look uneven
[en] In the design of complex objects, modular principles are of great interest. That approach has both negative and positive consequences. It clearly affects the cost of acquiring the required stock of equipment and, in particular, the spare parts necessary for its maintenance. Optimization of the modular structure of industrial equipment may best be approached in economic terms. Smart information systems for the support of management decisions prove very useful. A structure is proposed for such a system. Examples of such optimization in the aviation industry are presented, and practical experience is noted.
[en] In several processes of the forest products industry, an in-depth knowledge of log and board internal features is required and their determination needs fast scanning systems. One of the possible technologies is X-ray computed tomography (CT) technology. Our paper reviews applications of this technology in wood density measurements, in wood moisture content monitoring, and in locating internal log features that include pith, sapwood, heartwood, knots, and other defects. Annual growth ring measurements are more problematic to be detected on CT images because of the low spatial resolution of the images used. For log feature identification, our review shows that the feed-forward back-propagation artificial neural network is the most efficient CT image processing method. There are also some studies attempting to reconstruct three-dimensional log or board images from two-dimensional CT images. Several industrial prototypes have been developed because medical CT scanners were shown to be inappropriate for the wood industry. Because of the high cost of X-ray CT scanner equipment, other types of inexpensive sensors should also be investigated, such as electric resistivity tomography and microwaves. It also appears that the best approach uses various different sensors, each of them having its own strengths and weaknesses. (author)
[en] Nuclear Cargo + Service GmbH (NCS) offers logistics worldwide for the whole nuclear cycle to fuel manufacturers, reactor operators, and waste management companies. Transport equipment and interim stores are part of the company's facilities. The firm's Front End unit conducts transnational transports of yellow cake, uranium hexafluoride, and enriched uranium and uranium from reprocessing. In the Back End unit, the company performs worldwide transports of spent fuel elements of research reactors. Another key area of activity is shipment of radioactive waste ranging from low-level waste to HAW (highly active waste generating heat). In its Component Disposal area, NCS offers a variety of transport services up to and including large components, e.g. reactor pressure vessels, both on the road and by rail and ship. NCS operates storage halls of its own for storing radioactive materials including radioactive waste. The technical equipment of NCS comprises a large pool of road and rail transport vehicles as well as a great number of vessels for radioactive materials. (orig.)
[en] The objectives of this study are to elaborate on the concepts, dimensions and elements of green supply chain management (GSCM) and develop a framework of GSCM implementation for the construction industry. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents the findings from a study where experts were asked to contribute their opinions related to GSCM in the construction industry. To develop the model, the Delphi method was used. The objective of this method is to achieve the most reliable consensus in a group of experts. Findings: The research result is a developed framework for GSCM in the construction industry comprising five concepts, 22 dimensions, and 82 elements. Research limitations/implications: The limitation of this research is that its output was the discovered elements, but it did not cover the implementation of this model in construction projects, so some elements may be missing. Practical implications: The output of the research could give new perspective to manage the construction project based on Green Supply Chain Method. Social implications: The stakeholder of the construction project has to learn with this concept (Green Supply Chain) in order to improve construction’s project performance. Originality/value: The originality of this research is that it is a new theme in the area of the construction supply chain. Previous research merely considered the concept of GSCM in construction. Therefore, this research develops an assessment model for performance indicators of GSCM implementation in construction projects.
[en] The prospects for digital technology in the aviation industry are assessed in the present work. The Russian state program on the digital economy is assessed. Its key features are outlined, including selective competition between aviation enterprises. Special attention is paid to the new paradigm of digital design and simulation of next-generation products.
[en] The purpose of this paper is to show the improvements obtained through the application of IoT in a company of the metal-mechanical sector. esign/methodology/approach: The methodology used has been the collection of data before and after the application of the IoT in the process to manufacture tool-machines. Findings: Improvements obtained in some aspects of the process are very high (above 30%), making it a process that is more efficient allowing reduce costs. Research limitations/implications: Some aspects or details are difficult to quantify because there are no measurable parameters. Practical implications: Technological advances and new technologies applied to the industry, allows significant improvements in production. Social implications: Improvements obtained in the process can improve the conditions of workers. Originality/value: Originality of the paper is very high, because there are no publications of study or practical cases in the sector, due to the confidentiality and competitiveness of the sector.
[en] Total S.A., a French limited company, together with its subsidiaries and affiliates, is the fifth largest publicly-traded integrated international oil and gas company in the world. With operations in more than 130 countries, Total engages in all aspects of the petroleum industry, including Upstream operations (oil and gas exploration, development and production, LNG) and Downstream operations (refining, marketing and the trading and shipping of crude oil and petroleum products). Total also produces base chemicals (petrochemicals and fertilizers) and specialty chemicals, mainly for the industrial market. In addition, Total has interests in the coal mining and power generation sectors, as well as a financial interest in Sanofi-Aventis. This reference document presents: 1 - Key figures; 2 - Business overview; 3 - Management report; 4 - Risk factors; 5 - Corporate governance; 6 - Total and its shareholders; 7 - Financial information; 8 - General information; 9 - Consolidated Financial Statements; 10 - Supplemental oil and gas information (unaudited); 11 - Total S.A., Statutory auditors' reports and Other financial information; Glossary; European Cross-reference lists