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[en] Whereas the Covid-19 crisis has revealed the loss of strategic autonomy by France with respect to some basic goods, and has made even more visible the French industrial dropping out during the last twenty years, this article first aims at establishing a relationship between the crisis of 1970 and the current one, and at studying the stakes represented by French nuclear installations and the nuclear sector as a whole for relocation policies and, beyond that, for re-industrialisation. The author proposes an analysis of comparative benefits of nuclear as a sovereignty tool (nuclear was a response to the first oil shock; France must be prepared to face new energy shocks; the French nuclear basis must be secured on the long term), as a competitiveness factor (the acknowledged quality of the French electric power, one of the lowest price for industrial power), as a vector of skills (a still comprehensive high technology sector; a territorial ecosystem for a possible re-industrialisation), and as a key operator for decarbonization (carbon footprint of products and services is to become a competitiveness factor; a stake for the industry 4.0; a stake in the race for a new green fuel like low carbon hydrogen).
[fr]La crise du Covid-19 a revele la perte d'autonomie strategique de la France par rapport a certains biens essentiels et rendu d'autant plus visible le decrochage industriel francais sur les vingt dernieres annees. Ce decrochage est responsable non seulement d'une perte de souverainete mais aussi certainement en partie de la fracture sociale et territoriale grandissante. Alors que le plan de relance presente en septembre 2020 par le gouvernement accorde une importance particuliere aux projets de relocalisations, cette etude s'interesse aux avantages que representent les installations nucleaires et la filiere nucleaire francaise dans son ensemble pour les politiques de relocalisation et, au-dela, de reindustrialisation. Elle demontre notamment que le nucleaire est en France un outil de souverainete permettant de resister aux chocs energetiques, un facteur de competitivite-cout favorisant l'attractivite internationale du pays pour les industriels et un vecteur de competences, terreau d'une possible reindustrialisation au coeur des territoires. Finalement, la filiere nucleaire francaise est un operateur cle de la decarbonation en France et presente des atouts certains, non seulement parce que l'empreinte carbone des produits et services est amenee a devenir un nouveau facteur de competitivite mais aussi parce qu'elle permet a notre pays de se placer dans la course au carburant vert (l'hydrogene) et de se positionner dans les secteurs de demain gros consommateurs d'electricite, tels celui des data centers.
[en] It is essential that organisations in the nuclear community maintain a healthy safety culture to achieve common goals regarding the safe operation of nuclear facilities and the safe use of nuclear material. Regulatory bodies are no exception, as a key element of the interconnected system which includes licensees, research institutions, technical support organisations, as well as governmental organisations and other stakeholders. By their very nature, regulatory bodies deeply influence the safety culture and the safety of the organisations they regulate and oversee. Based on their regulatory strategy, the way they carry out their daily oversight work, the type of relationship they cultivate with licensees, the values they convey and the importance they give to safety, regulatory bodies profoundly impact the licensees' safety culture, their sense of responsibility for safety and, by extension, the safety of their installations. Regulatory bodies apply a number of methods, practices and approaches to foster and sustain a healthy safety culture. This report provides an overview and practical examples to build the regulatory bodies' safety culture competence and to perform self-reflection and self-assessment with regard to their own safety culture and its impact on the safety culture of the organisations they oversee. Drawing directly from the experiences from OECD Nuclear Energy Agency member countries, the report discusses effective methods to disseminate safety culture throughout the regulatory body, to build competence in safety culture, and to develop self-reflection and self-assessment activities. Finally, the report presents ten conclusions based on lessons learnt and best practices to inspire managers to continuously develop their regulatory body's safety culture.
[en] Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) provide an essential understanding of the impact a condition or treatment has on a patient, while complementing other, more traditional outcomes information like survival and time to symptom resolution. PROs have become increasingly important in medicine with the push toward patient-centered care. The creation of a PROs database within an institution or practice provides a way to collect, understand, and use this kind of patient feedback to inform quality improvement and develop the evidence base for medical decision-making and on a larger scale could potentially help determine national standards of care and treatment guidelines. This paper provides a first-hand account of our experience setting up an imaging-based PROs database at our institution and is organized into steps the reader can follow for creating a PROs database of their own. Given the limited use of PROs within both diagnostic and interventional radiology, we hope our paper stimulates a new interest among radiologists who may have never considered outcomes work in the past.
[en] Delivery quality assurance (DQA) is the process of establishing a treatment plan and verifying that the pre-treatment dose is delivered without any problems through a simulation. If the result does not meet certain criteria, the dose delivered to the patient is judged to be inaccurate, and the measurement or the treatment plan should be reconsidered. Therefore, it is important to analyze the plan parameters that influence the DQA outcome. The plan parameters have been studied for LINAC-based intensity-modulated radiation therapy and the Tomo helical method but not for the Tomo direct (TD) method. In this study, we perform this investigation using the TD method. A Radixcat X9 machine was used to collect data. Furthermore, in the TD method, we set the passing rate for each gamma analysis criterion as 2%/2 mm and 3%/3 mm. Next, the plan parameters influencing the DQA passing rate were confirmed by Pearson’s correlation analysis and regression analysis. Based on the gamma analysis, the mean passing rates of 2%/2 mm and 3%/3 mm were 97.9299 and 99.8472, respectively. The plan parameters influencing the DQA passing rate during the Pearson correlation analysis were IECZ (2%/2 mm: p = 0.008), duration (2%/2 mm: p = 0.002), and planning target volume (2%/2 mm: p = 0.030 and 3%/3 mm: p = 0.034). Based on these results, a regression analysis was performed. As a result of the regression analysis, duration (2%/2 mm: p = 0.047) was identified as the most significant plan parameter for the DQA passing rate. However, statistically for the gamma analysis criterion of 3%/3 mm, there were no significant plan parameters. As the beta of the duration has a negative relationship with the passing rate, reducing the duration improves the passing rate. When confirming the passing rate for each group in a duration of 60 s, it was confirmed that the passing rate was high if it was set to less than 240 s. So, we recommend setting the duration to 240 s or less.
[en] This publication was developed from the exchange of information, experiences and practices by participating Member States at the IAEA Technical Meeting on the Safety and Security Interface — Approaches and National Experiences, held in Vienna in 2018. It aims to provide a better understanding of the important elements of the interface between nuclear safety and nuclear security for facilities and activities and to highlight the challenges, opportunities and good practices for its effective management when planning and implementing different programmes and activities.
[en] A wealth of technical information exists on nuclear fuel cycle options - combinations of nuclear fuel types, reactor types, used or spent nuclear fuel (SNF) treatments, and disposal schemes - and most countries with active nuclear power programs conduct some level of research and development on advanced nuclear fuel cycles. However, perhaps because of the number of options that exist, it is often difficult for policy makers to understand the nature and magnitude of the differences between the various options. This report explores the fuel cycle options and the differentiating characteristics of these options. It also describes the driving factors for decisions related to both the development of the fuel cycle and the characteristics resulting from implementing the option. It includes information on the current status and future plans for power reactors, reprocessing facilities, disposal facilities, and the status of research and development activities in several countries. It is designed for policy makers to understand the differences among the fuel cycle options in a way that is concise, understandable, and based on the existing technologies, while keeping technical discussions to a minimum.
[en] This paper explains the use of muon tomography in imaging the dry storage container to detect the high radioactive material in it. Cosmic ray muon is a natural source in the Earth’s atmosphere and has high penetrating power and large scattering angle for high Z materials. In this paper, we have designed a dry storage container inside which UO2 rods have been placed and on increasing the number of these rods muon scattering has been observed.We have shown that as the muons entered into the container, it generates a scattering pattern and from that pattern,we can find the existence of any nuclear waste in it accurately without opening it. Some other parameters such as energy loss, radiation length and scattering angle have also been calculated for 3 GeV–10 GeV muon energy. The results for 3 GeV energy has been compared with C Jewettet a land further extrapolated to higher energies. (author)
[en] Alignment of cranial CT scans (cCTs) to a common reference plane simplifies anatomical-landmark-based orientation and eases follow-up assessment of intracranial findings. We developed and open sourced a fully automated system, which aligns cCTs to the Anterior Commissure/Posterior Commissure (ACPC) line and exports the results to the PACS. FMRIB’s Linear Image Registration Tool (FLIRT) with an ACPC-aligned atlas is used in the alignment step. Five mm mean slabs are generated with the top non-air slice as the starting point. For evaluation, 301 trauma cCTs from the CQ500 dataset were processed. In visual comparison with the respective ACPC-aligned atlas, all were successfully aligned. Image quality (IQ) and ease of identification of the central sulcus (CS) were rated on a Likert scale (5 = excellent IQ/immediate CS identification). The median IQ was 4 (range: 2–4) in the original series and 5 (range: 4–5) in the ACPC-aligned series (p < 0.0001). The CS was more easily identified after fatbACPC (original scans: 4 (range: 2–5); ACPC-aligned: 5 (range: 4–5); p < 0.0001). The mean rotation to achieve alignment was |X| = 6.4 ± 5.2° ([–X,+X] = –26.8°–24.2°), |Y| = 2.1 ± 1.7° ([-Y,+Y] = –8.7°–9.8°), and |Z| = 3.1 ± 2.4° ([–Z,+Z] = –14.3°–12.5°). The developed system can robustly and automatically align cCTs to the ACPC line. Degrees of deviation from the ideal alignment could be used for quality assurance.
[en] The CNSC (Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission) evaluates the safety performance of nuclear power plant (NPP) licensees and prepares an annual report on their safety performance referred to as the Regulatory Oversight Report, which is presented to the Commission and is subsequently published on the CNSC web page. Prior to 2017, the report was referred to as the Regulatory Oversight Report for Canadian NPPs. However, in 2017, the report was expanded to include the safety performance evaluation of waste management facilities located at NPP sites. The report has been renamed as the Regulatory Oversight Report for Canadian Nuclear Power Generating Sites. The CNSC evaluates how well licensees meet regulatory requirements and CNSC expectations for the performance of programmes in 14 safety and control areas (SCAs) that are grouped in accordance with their functional areas of management, facility and equipment, or core control processes. These SCAs are further divided into 71 specific areas that define the key components of the SCA. The functional areas, SCAs and the specific areas that are used in CNSC’s safety performance evaluation are presented. An example of safety performance ratings for Canadian NPPs is given. An example of a conclusion of a CNSC Regulatory Oversight Report for Canadian Nuclear Power Generating Sites is as follows: The evaluations of all findings for the SCAs show that, overall, NPP licensees made adequate provisions for the protection of health, safety and security of Canadians and the environment from the use of nuclear energy, and took the necessary measures to implement Canada’s international obligations.
[en] National nuclear institutes (NNIs) contribute significantly to national development, providing services focused on developing and applying relevant technologies for the public good. While many NNIs provide commercial services and products that generate revenue, some are financially dependent on subsidies from national governments. This publication presents the outcome of a workshop which addressed the challenges for Member States regarding self-reliance and sustainability of their NNIs. Participants discussed efforts and best practices to cope with these challenges. The publication includes positive examples of tools or measures to be used in practical projects and programmes for achieving management goals towards self-reliance and sustainability. Examples of governmental policies in support of self-reliance and sustainability of NNIs are also presented. Finally, the country presentations in this publication show some examples of how NNIs cooperate with public or private stakeholders, providing some insights on how partnership opportunities can be explored.