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[en] An issue that has long been on the radioactive waste management agenda is the means of marking a waste repository site, such that future generations will be able to comprehend its purpose and risks even if written records have been lost. For years the main reason cited for needing such comprehension was to preclude unintentional future human intrusion into the repository and the ensuing exposure of the intruder to radiation. Such a future intruder could also cause damage to the repository system and endanger his own and subsequent generations. More recently, other reasons have included the wish to maintain a certain degree of flexibility for future generations, in case the latter decide to retrieve the waste for motives that may go beyond safety, e.g., the economic exploitation of the energy potential that may remain in the waste. The conceptualisation and design of markers of records by technologists has typically focused on durability and has assumed that the repository is - and will be - something totally separate from its cultural environment. A new vision is emerging, however, that it may be worthwhile to consider the repository as part of a societal fabric. The task of maintaining memory would thus be facilitated by measures that would foster community involvement and would go as far as foreseeing that these communities will in time build their own new markers to replace old ones that have become obsolete or are fading away. It must be understood that the timescales over which the hazard exists are much longer than just a few thousands of years, and it must be accepted that the current generation's capacity to assure continued integrity cannot be projected indefinitely into the future, but rather diminishes with time. Hence, there is perhaps the need to conceptualize a 'rolling future' in which each generation takes responsibility to ensure continuity and safety for the succeeding several generations, including a need for flexibility and adaptability to circumstances as they change. (author)
[en] The management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste account from July last year with its own Community legislation, Directive 2011/70/Euratom. The intention is to ensure that all Member States to develop this task with the utmost responsibility and safety. Below is performed a thorough analysis of the standard through some of his articles, examines their transposition in the European Union and Spain and made a comparison with existing international law on the subject. (Author) 31 refs.
[en] Institutions involved in radioactive waste management are facing a rapidly evolving environment stemming from societal changes, including new information technologies and new roles for the media. At the same time, some national programmes are moving from research and development to site selection and implementation, while other countries are reviewing and defining their policies in the waste management area. As in many other fields in which environmental and risk considerations are involved, demand for public participation in radioactive waste management decision making calls for new approaches towards involving stakeholders. (authors)
[en] Quality Management is a recent phenomenon. This is applied to products or services, with an objective to deliver high quality, reliable, worthy, enduring, product or service. The process is considered to have four main components: quality planning, quality control, quality assurance and quality improvement. Focusing on quality control and quality assurance leads to achieving quality management or ensures that an organization or product is consistent. In this paper, the applicable international standard for learning services and for the organization for education and training (learning service provider) is discussed and also the procedure to implement the management system.
[en] This article examines the role of human factors in radioactive waste management. Although few problems and ergonomics are special to radioactive waste management, some problems are unique especially with long term storage. The entire sociotechnical system must be looked at in order to see where improvement can take place because operator errors, as seen in Chernobyl and Bhopal, are ultimately the result of management errors
[en] Radioactive waste introduces a new time dimension in the field of risk management. This is why, for more than 10 years, there have been reflections on the societal and organisational mechanisms allowing a responsible management over the long term of the risk associated with radioactive waste. These reflections lead one to ask questions regarding interactions between what is at stake for societal and radiation protection criteria, demanding a multidisciplinary approach to the problem. Within the framework of the European project C.O.W.A.M. 2, dedicated to the improvement of governance of radioactive waste management in Europe, a working group involving experts, authorities, waste managers, locally elected representatives and N.G.O.s, discussed the stakes associated with the long term dimension. This article presents the main results of this working group, organised around four themes: meaning of the long term and what is at stake, the ethical dimension regarding long term issues, continuity and sustainability of the surveillance and control of radioactive waste facilities, effectiveness of financing schemes for the long term management of radioactive waste. (authors)
[en] The results of creating multilanguage thesauri have been described. The architecture and typical working process of a multiagent information analysis system (MIAS) in scientific and technological areas with the use of a multilanguage thesaurus have been presented. The model of a multilanguage thesaurus and aspects of creating a Chinese language thesaurus have been described. The results of the experimental agent search for thematic information on plasma physics in Russian, English, and Chinese have been presented
[ru]В данной статье описаны результаты работы авторов по созданию многоязычных тезаурусов. Представлены архитектура и типовой процесс работы мультиагентной информационно-аналитической системы (МИАС) по естественнонаучным и технологическим направлениям с использованием многоязычного тезауруса. Описана модель многоязычного тезауруса и особенности формирования тезауруса на китайском языке. Представлены результаты, полученные в ходе эксперимента по агентному поиску тематической информации по физике плазмы на русском, английском и китайском языках
[en] Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a threat not just to the individual nations but also to international security and stability in general. The Global Partnership Programme was created to resist the proliferation of weapons and materials of mass destruction. The paper presents the Russian initiatives in this field, describes legal framework and coordination of activities. Issues of submarine dismantling, spent fuel and radwaste management are also discussed
[ru]Распространение оружия массового уничтожения представляет угрозу не только конкретным странам, но и международной безопасности и стабильности в целом. Программа глобального партнерства была создана, чтобы противостоять распространению оружия и материалов массового уничтожения. В работе представлены российские инициативы в этой области, рассказано о правовой основе и координации работ. Также освещены проблемы утилизации подлодок, обращения с облученным ядерным топливом и радиоактивными отходами
[en] The ANDRA, the French authority for the management of radioactive waste, has launched a competition for architects and artists on how to preserve the memory of a disposal site of nuclear waste. 24 projects have been proposed and 3 have been awarded. The first prize was given to 'Forests' designed by the New Voisins agency, it represents a forest of 80, 30 meter high concrete pillars on top of each an oak tree grows, the pillars are placed all over the disposal site and slowly, as time goes, they will sink into the ground and eventually will form a buried protective shield of the site. The memory of the site is guaranteed for at least 300 years. The second prize was awarded to the 'Good luck' project proposed by Bruno Grasser. It is a protective case containing a corn cob like clay structure made up of 2500 grains, each one representing a time unit: a year. Every year a grain is removed and every 40 years the item kept by the site wardens, is given to the new generation of wardens. The memory will last 2500 years. The third project to receive an award was 'Could in-Could out' work proposed by Alice and David Bertizzolo. This project is made up of thousands of artificial deep-red colored stones, cut in half and whose one half stands at the top of a 1 to 2 meter high metal mast while the other one is buried in the ground. At the beginning the work appears as a large carpet of poppies covering the disposal site. As time passes, the work deteriorates, the half-stones fall and are buried in the ground, turning themselves into a warning message without text targeted for those tempted to dig the disposal site in the future. A skull and cross-bones symbol may be engraved on each stone. (A.C.)