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[en] Safety Assessment for A Hypothetical Surface Disposal At SERPONG Site: Selection Of Scenario. The features, events and processes (FEP'S) have to be considered in doing the safety assessment of a shallow land burial (SLB) repository at hypothetical site at Serpong was investigated. The list of FEP's and the methodology that was developed by Study Centrum Voor Kernenergie-Centre D'Etude De L 'Energie Nuclaire (SCK-CEN) are used. The results indicated that from 133 FEP's, 80 of FEP's are rejected and 53 FEP's are to be considered in the normal evolution scenarios (30 FEP's), altered evolution scenarios (7FEP's) and in the biosphere evolution scenarios (16 FEP's). The description of each FEP's have to be considered was given in this article. Because the data and the information of the hypothetical site are limited at this time, the selections of these FEP's have to be reviewed in the future
[en] A pilot program concerning source separation of household waste was launched in Hangzhou, capital city of Zhejiang province, China. Detailed investigations on the composition and properties of household waste in the experimental communities revealed that high water content and high percentage of food waste are the main limiting factors in the recovery of recyclables, especially paper from household waste, and the main contributors to the high cost and low efficiency of waste disposal. On the basis of the investigation, a novel source separation method, according to which household waste was classified as food waste, dry waste and harmful waste, was proposed and performed in four selected communities. In addition, a corresponding household waste management system that involves all stakeholders, a recovery system and a mechanical dehydration system for food waste were constituted to promote source separation activity. Performances and the questionnaire survey results showed that the active support and investment of a real estate company and a community residential committee play important roles in enhancing public participation and awareness of the importance of waste source separation. In comparison with the conventional mixed collection and transportation system of household waste, the established source separation and management system is cost-effective. It could be extended to the entire city and used by other cities in China as a source of reference
[en] The construction of waste disposal sites demonstrates the awareness of the need to protect the environment against pollution. The site are constructed on foundations of soils and rocks. Photo geological studies, geophysical investigations and geological field mapping are indispensable in the selection of suitable sites. Most of the construction materials (in the case of landfills) are of geologic origin and their suitability can only be ascertained after some geological assessments. Furthermore, the hydrogeological conditions within the adjoining terrains and the flow of leachates from and within the wastes must be monitored so as to prevent pollution (radiation, in the case of radioactive wastes, can be monitored with the aid of geochemistry). Several models/systems are available for the hydrogeological/geochemical evaluation of waste disposal sites. The selection of the site and the construction materials as well as the hydrogeological/ /geochemical studies are very critical as the performance of the disposal site depends solely on these aspects. These aspects are basically within the realms of geology. It is thus obvious that geology plays a leading role in the evaluation of waste disposal sites right from the site selection stage until the site is done with
[en] Environmental safety in decommissioning of nuclear facilities is both its final target and also a key governing decommissioning as a whole, which has become an issue that has drawn attention of the public throughout the world. Effective safety measures have been adopted in the design, and strictly followed in carrying-out, of nuclear facility decommissioning activities in our country. Therefore, the environmental impact of decommissioning activities is controlled below the pre-set limits, so as to be safe for the public and their generations. In this paper, a preliminary discussion is provided of environmental impact of decommissioning activities that have been completed to date. This is aimed to obtain consensus among the persons concerned through detailed discussion and even debate for a better progress in this field in our country. (author)
[en] Companies normally generate rich sets of data, related to production, waste, energy and environmental parameters. These numbers have a great potential to be used as rational means to establish goals for continuous improvement, waste minimization, energy use production and environmental pollution control. However this is not the case, in general, because people in charge lack knowledge on how to use the data for this purpose. It is common that fixed goals are set without real bases with any relationship to production levels or energy and waste real data. This paper shows how to use data for monitoring process and targeting goals for waste minimization and specific energy use reduction. It is based on the experience of the author on applying this practice to more than 20 industrial cases
[en] During the last two years, Site Information and Total Environmental database management System (SITES) ver. 1.0 has been developed for the systematic SITES Database Module (SDM), which includes site information, facility information and environmental information. The SITES includes the module for site environmental monitoring system and safety assessment (M and A) system for the nuclear facility. SITES is expected to be an effective system for the radioactive waste disposal management facility. Currently, SITES ver.2.0 is under development after the SITES ver.1.0 that is focused on the M and A system. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce and try to account for the major development in the concept of SEMS sub-module of the M and A module. The SEMS is purposed of development of the program for real time environmental monitoring, prediction, and automatic alarm system using SITES Database and related information.
[en] Biosolids are extensively used in agriculture as fertilizers while offering a practical solution for waste disposal. Many pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), such as triclosan and triclocarban, are enriched in biosolids. Biosolid amendment changes soil physicochemical properties, which may in turn alter the persistence of PPCPs and hence the risk for secondary contamination such as plant uptake. To delineate the effect of biosolids on PPCPs persistence, triclosan and triclocarban were used as model compounds in this study and their sorption (K_d) and persistence (t_1_/_2) were determined in different soils before and after biosolid amendment. Biosolids consistently increased sorption of triclosan and triclocarban in soil. The K_d of triclosan increased by 3.9–21 times following amendment of a sandy loam soil with biosolids at 2–10%. The persistence of both compounds was prolonged, with t_1_/_2 of triclosan increasing from 10 d in the unamended soil to 63 d after biosolid amendment at 10%. The relationship between t_1_/_2 and K_d was further examined through a meta-analysis using data from this study and all relevant published studies. A significant linear relationship between t_1_/_2 and K_d was observed for triclosan (r"2 = 0.69, p < 0.01) and triclocarban (r"2 = 0.38, p < 0.05) in biosolid-amended soils. On the average, when biosolid amendment increased by 1%, t_1_/_2 of triclosan was prolonged by 7.5 d, while t_1_/_2 of triclocarban was extended by 4.7 d. Therefore, biosolid amendment greatly enhances persistence of triclosan and triclocarban, likely due to enhanced sorption or decreased chemical bioavailability. This finding highlights the importance to consider the effect of biosolids when evaluating the environmental risks of these and other biosolid-borne PPCPs. - Highlights: • K_d and t_1_/_2 of triclosan and triclocarban were determined in soil with or without biosolid amendment. • Correlation of K_d and t_1_/_2 was tested using values from this study and all available literature. • Negative relationships were observed between K_d and t_1_/_2 for both compounds. • Biosolid amendment significantly prolonged persistence of triclosan in soil. - Amendment of biosolids significantly inhibited degradation and increased persistence of triclosan and triclocarban, likely due to decreased bioavailability.
[en] This article explores the nature of public participation in the environmental impact assessment (EIA) process in the context of the potential integration of the Aarhus Convention principles into the UK EIA system. Although the Convention advocates 'early' and 'effective' participation, these terms remain undefined and questions persist about exactly how to implement the Aarhus principles. Ten practice evaluation criteria derived from the Aarhus Convention are used to analyse the public participation procedures used in four UK waste disposal EIA case studies. The paper reports the extent to which the practice evaluation criteria were fulfilled, explores the types and effectiveness of the participation methods used in the EIAs, and highlights some of the key barriers that appear to impede the execution of 'early' and 'effective' participation programmes. It concludes that the Aarhus Convention will undoubtedly lead to a strengthening of participation procedures but that the level of improvement secured will depend upon how its ideals are interpreted and incorporated into legislation and practice