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[en] A model of two interacting self-attracting, self-avoiding walks is proposed to study the critical behavior of two interacting chemically different linear polymers in a solution that may have different qualities for different chains. We solve the model exactly on truncated n-simplex lattices for 4≤n≤6 using the real-space renormalization-group transformation. Depending upon the solvent quality, the temperature, and the attractive interactions between interchain and intrachain monomers, the configuration of either segregation or interpenetration or zipping of chains may arise. It is shown that these configurations correspond to different fixed points of the renormalized-group transformation. The value of the contact exponent is calculated exactly at the tricritical points corresponding to the segregation-interpenetration and the interpenetration--zipped-state chain transitions. The phase boundaries of these states are shown on a plane of fugacity weight attached with a zipped step (i.e., a step in which both walks move side by side) and the Boltzmann factor associated with the attraction between unlike monomers. The phase diagram is shown to have different universality domains of critical behavior
[en] Measurements of the average thermal contractions (294→72 K) of 26 different cryosolutions are presented and discussed in conjunction with other recent advances in the rational design of protocols for cryogenic cooling in macromolecular crystallography. Cryogenic cooling of macromolecular crystals is commonly used for X-ray data collection both to reduce crystal damage from radiation and to gather functional information by cryogenically trapping intermediates. However, the cooling process can damage the crystals. Limiting cooling-induced crystal damage often requires cryoprotection strategies, which can involve substantial screening of solution conditions and cooling protocols. Here, recent developments directed towards rational methods for cryoprotection are described. Crystal damage is described in the context of the temperature response of the crystal as a thermodynamic system. As such, the internal and external parts of the crystal typically have different cryoprotection requirements. A key physical parameter, the thermal contraction, of 26 different cryoprotective solutions was measured between 294 and 72 K. The range of contractions was 2–13%, with the more polar cryosolutions contracting less. The potential uses of these results in the development of cryocooling conditions, as well as recent developments in determining minimum cryosolution soaking times, are discussed
[en] Although reductions in the tax of injuries and accidents have been observed in recent years, Mining is still one of the highest risks industries. The basic causes for occurrence of fatalities can be attributed to unsafe conditions and unsafe acts. In this scene is necessary to identify safety problems and to aim the effective solutions. On the other hand, the developing countries dependence on primary industries as mining is evident. In the Peruvian economy, approximately 16% of the GNP and more than 50% of the exportations are due to the mining sector, detaching its competitive position in the worldwide mining. This paper presents fatal accidents analysis in the Peruvian mining industry, having as basis the register of occurred fatal accidents since year 2000 until 2007, identifying the main types of accidents occurred. The source of primary information is the General Mining Direction (DGM) of the Peruvian Mining and Energy Ministry (MEM). The majority of victims belongs to tertiary contractor companies that render services for mine companies. The results of the analysis show also that the majority of accidents happened in the underground mines, and that it is necessary to propose effective solutions to manage risks, aiming at reducing the fatal accidents taxes. (Author)
[en] Ethical and societal issues concerning justice, safety, risks, and benefits are well-established topics in the discourses of nanotechnology innovation and development. That nanotechnology innovation should be socially and ethically responsible is generally accepted by scientists, policymakers, regulators, and industry, and the idea of public involvement and communication is part and parcel of the conceptualization of responsible technology development. This paper systematically reviews the social science research literature accumulated between 2002 and 2018 on the communication of nanotechnology. A critical and constructivist perspective on policy problems guides the analysis. Two questions are asked of this literature: what problems are identified regarding the communication of nanotechnology to the public? How can these problems be managed and/or resolved? Three different problem themes are identified: the public, societal institutions, and nanotechnology itself. While for some identified problems, there are corresponding solutions; in other instances, there is little alignment between problems and solutions. In conclusion, the paper recommends that in communicating nanotechnology to the public: (i) the objectives of communication should be defined; (ii) previous research should be used responsibly; (iii) communication strategies should be adapted to the context; and (iv) effort should not be spent trying to develop a generic framework for communication.
[en] The fundamentals of the theory of formation of surface complexes (or the surface complexation theory, SCT), which is used in processing the results of studies on the equilibria in multicomponent ion exchange sorption systems, are outlined. The advantage of the theory is the use of the sorption characteristics of binary ion exchange systems for the description and calculation of multicomponent equilibria with allowance for the medium pH value. The solutions to some problems of nonlinear sorption dynamics theory obtained using the description of multicomponent equilibria in the framework of the SCT model are considered. Experimental data on the concentration distributions of components in frontal and displacement chromatograms are compared with the results of corresponding numerical calculations using various sets of parameters of the SCT model (including versions with allowance for the effect of complexation reactions in the mobile phase).
[en] This paper treats a solution for the ill-posed (inverse) load determination problem for a time-varying load on a beam. The ill-posed nature of the problem causes numerical instability. Conventional numerical approach for solutions results in arbitrarily large errors in solution. The Tikhonov regularization method, which is a non-iterative stabilization technique, has been widely adopted for overcoming the ill-posed nature (or numerical instability). However, in this paper, we introduce an 'iterative' regularization method, specifically, the iterated Tikhonov regularization method. The iterated method is applied to the present load determination problem. The result of the iterative method is compared with that of the (non-iterative) Tikhonov regularization. The rate of convergence for the introduced iterative method turned out to be very fast. The accuracy and applicability of the introduced method are examined through a numerical experiment
[en] We present the general theory and implementation of the Conductor-like Screening Model according to the recently developed ddCOSMO paradigm. The various quantities needed to apply ddCOSMO at different levels of theory, including quantum mechanical descriptions, are discussed in detail, with a particular focus on how to compute the integrals needed to evaluate the ddCOSMO solvation energy and its derivatives. The overall computational cost of a ddCOSMO computation is then analyzed and decomposed in the various steps: the different relative weights of such contributions are then discussed for both ddCOSMO and the fastest available alternative discretization to the COSMO equations. Finally, the scaling of the cost of the various steps with respect to the size of the solute is analyzed and discussed, showing how ddCOSMO opens significantly new possibilities when cheap or hybrid molecular mechanics/quantum mechanics methods are used to describe the solute
[en] Resolving the uncertainties associated with solutions obtained from artificial neural networks (ANNs) is a major concern for ANN researchers. Error bounds on the solutions are important because they are in integral part of verification and validation. In this research, stacked generalization (SG) is applied to provide error bounds for novel solutions obtained from ANNs. This work shows that SG can provide error bounds on ANN results. We have applied SG to nuclear power plant fault detection for verification of diagnoses provided by ANNs
[en] The structure of RT room is consist of concrete. Because of low cost and shielding efficiency, the concrete is used widely for building of RT room. But in fortunately, gamma radiation is scattered so much with the concrete and back scattering also very strong. The secondary radiation by back scattering will be big affected in making film image quality in case of heavy wall casting, it is needed long exposure time. The long exposure time means increasing of scattered radiation to the film. In the topic, the interaction of gamma radiation and materials by scattered radiation will discussed and also the attenuation of scattered radiation with concrete. It is the main object to find the method of minimizing the effects by the scattered radiation for each materials and its application.
[en] The aim of this essay is to address some of the aspects of the Bridge alternative and to examine the conclusions reached back in 1995 over the feasibility of such a solution. Although having been left aside for decades, the Bridge Solution of the Strait of Gibraltar Crossing Project has been brought back to life as an available alternative to close the gap between the two continents, being the reason to have recently detected some impediment down into the lower layers of the site laying grounds. All of which has revealed further geotechnical issues to tackle. Given the current level of development the Tunnel solution has reached, the 20-year-old Bridge solution needs to be fully updated in order to catch up with the former: As well as taking into consideration the new trends present in the state of the art on design of structures, the Bridge solution would also entail updating construction procedures if it is to incorporate all the potentialities offered by: (1) related tools (2) machinery, and (3), many new ideas which, coming from distinct industrial sectors others than the public works, have worked their way through the construction field. Furthermore, it would be necessary to bear in mind the ceaseless development materials science is going through, which involves constant increases in both levels of resilience and number of characteristics such materials present. (Author)