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[en] Measurements of the average thermal contractions (294→72 K) of 26 different cryosolutions are presented and discussed in conjunction with other recent advances in the rational design of protocols for cryogenic cooling in macromolecular crystallography. Cryogenic cooling of macromolecular crystals is commonly used for X-ray data collection both to reduce crystal damage from radiation and to gather functional information by cryogenically trapping intermediates. However, the cooling process can damage the crystals. Limiting cooling-induced crystal damage often requires cryoprotection strategies, which can involve substantial screening of solution conditions and cooling protocols. Here, recent developments directed towards rational methods for cryoprotection are described. Crystal damage is described in the context of the temperature response of the crystal as a thermodynamic system. As such, the internal and external parts of the crystal typically have different cryoprotection requirements. A key physical parameter, the thermal contraction, of 26 different cryoprotective solutions was measured between 294 and 72 K. The range of contractions was 2–13%, with the more polar cryosolutions contracting less. The potential uses of these results in the development of cryocooling conditions, as well as recent developments in determining minimum cryosolution soaking times, are discussed
[en] Although reductions in the tax of injuries and accidents have been observed in recent years, Mining is still one of the highest risks industries. The basic causes for occurrence of fatalities can be attributed to unsafe conditions and unsafe acts. In this scene is necessary to identify safety problems and to aim the effective solutions. On the other hand, the developing countries dependence on primary industries as mining is evident. In the Peruvian economy, approximately 16% of the GNP and more than 50% of the exportations are due to the mining sector, detaching its competitive position in the worldwide mining. This paper presents fatal accidents analysis in the Peruvian mining industry, having as basis the register of occurred fatal accidents since year 2000 until 2007, identifying the main types of accidents occurred. The source of primary information is the General Mining Direction (DGM) of the Peruvian Mining and Energy Ministry (MEM). The majority of victims belongs to tertiary contractor companies that render services for mine companies. The results of the analysis show also that the majority of accidents happened in the underground mines, and that it is necessary to propose effective solutions to manage risks, aiming at reducing the fatal accidents taxes. (Author)
[en] Thermo-dependence of electrodiffusional measurements of wall velocity gradient has been studied in a fully developed turbulent channel flow. In isothermal conditions, the direct thermo-compensation can be provided using the measurements of thermo-dependence of molecular diffusivity and viscosity. The simultaneous transient and steady-state limiting diffusion current measurements open the possibility for in situ compensation of thermal effects in electrodiffusional flow diagnostics at non-isothermal conditions where the local temperature gradients are presented. The feasibility of the proposed method of thermo-compensation has been confirmed experimentally for the case of local heating of the solution by means of pulse hot-wire technique
[en] The structure of RT room is consist of concrete. Because of low cost and shielding efficiency, the concrete is used widely for building of RT room. But in fortunately, gamma radiation is scattered so much with the concrete and back scattering also very strong. The secondary radiation by back scattering will be big affected in making film image quality in case of heavy wall casting, it is needed long exposure time. The long exposure time means increasing of scattered radiation to the film. In the topic, the interaction of gamma radiation and materials by scattered radiation will discussed and also the attenuation of scattered radiation with concrete. It is the main object to find the method of minimizing the effects by the scattered radiation for each materials and its application.
[en] This paper treats a solution for the ill-posed (inverse) load determination problem for a time-varying load on a beam. The ill-posed nature of the problem causes numerical instability. Conventional numerical approach for solutions results in arbitrarily large errors in solution. The Tikhonov regularization method, which is a non-iterative stabilization technique, has been widely adopted for overcoming the ill-posed nature (or numerical instability). However, in this paper, we introduce an 'iterative' regularization method, specifically, the iterated Tikhonov regularization method. The iterated method is applied to the present load determination problem. The result of the iterative method is compared with that of the (non-iterative) Tikhonov regularization. The rate of convergence for the introduced iterative method turned out to be very fast. The accuracy and applicability of the introduced method are examined through a numerical experiment
[en] The X-ray crystallographic structure of a dimer variant of fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase demonstrates a stable oligomer that mirrors half of the native tetramer. The presence of product demonstrates that this is an active form. Fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase (aldolase) is an essential enzyme in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. In addition to this primary function, aldolase is also known to bind to a variety of other proteins, a property that may allow it to perform ‘moonlighting’ roles in the cell. Although monomeric and dimeric aldolases possess full catalytic activity, the enzyme occurs as an unusually stable tetramer, suggesting a possible link between the oligomeric state and these noncatalytic cellular roles. Here, the first high-resolution X-ray crystal structure of rabbit muscle D128V aldolase, a dimeric form of aldolase mimicking the clinically important D128G mutation in humans associated with hemolytic anemia, is presented. The structure of the dimer was determined to 1.7 Å resolution with the product DHAP bound in the active site. The turnover of substrate to produce the product ligand demonstrates the retention of catalytic activity by the dimeric aldolase. The D128V mutation causes aldolase to lose intermolecular contacts with the neighboring subunit at one of the two interfaces of the tetramer. The tertiary structure of the dimer does not significantly differ from the structure of half of the tetramer. Analytical ultracentrifugation confirms the occurrence of the enzyme as a dimer in solution. The highly stable structure of aldolase with an independent active site is consistent with a model in which aldolase has evolved as a multimeric scaffold to perform other noncatalytic functions
[en] Repetitive plasma discharges developed in saline solutions have been investigated using fast, intensified charge coupled detector imaging techniques. The images show that synchronously pulsed multielectrode configurations tend to develop intense, transient plasma regions somewhat randomly in both space and time on short (10 μs) time scales, even though they appear to be stationary on longer (tens of milliseconds) time scales. Evidence for the production of both strongly ionized and weakly ionized plasmas is also presented
[en] The low-energy scattering of two charged particles is analyzed using a renormalization group approach based on dimensional regularization with power-divergence subtraction. A nontrivial solution with a marginally unstable direction is found, corresponding to a system with a bound state at zero energy. For purely energy-dependent perturbations around this solution, the power counting agrees with that from Wilsonian methods. These terms in the effective potential are in direct correspondence with the the terms in the Coulomb-distorted effective-range expansion. We also study perturbations that depend on off-shell momenta as well as energy, and we show that these affect only the off-shell form of the scattering matrix. These terms are of higher order than the corresponding energy-dependent ones and so terms in the potential that depend only on the off-shell momenta do not have definite orders in power counting
[en] Gas discharge initiation of chemical processes in electrolyte solutions is considered. Data on the types of chemical transformations in plasma-solution systems are presented. The processes of generation of primary reactive species in solutions under gas discharge and the key routes for their further reactions are analysed. The prospects for practical application of plasma-solution systems in solving technological and environmental problems are considered.