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[en] Increasing numbers of galleries, museums and archives are including ink jet printed materials into their collections, and therefore displays. There is evidence that the instability of these prints is such that images can suffer deterioration in print quality or in extreme cases, a loss of information over an extended period of time. This is shorter than the period typically required for perceptible deterioration to occur in many other paper-based artworks. The image stability of prints is affected by a number of factors some of which have already been studied. However the role played by the ink solvent in the loss of image quality has yet to be explored. This paper will outline research being undertaken to investigate the effects of solvent content which may increase/promote the loss in image quality of the hard copy prints when stored or displayed under a range of temperature and humidity conditions.
[en] This paper presents a study of feasibility of different existing methodologies linked to field's data acquisition from remote meteorological stations. The data transmission serves to collect field's meteorological information, such as temperature, humidity and radiation. In our study the experimental data is registered in a weather station located about 100 km from University of Almeria. Various existing techniques are studied, especially Radio, GSM (global system of mobile communication) and GPRS (general packet radio service). In the result of these studies has been designed a system of field's data acquisition (herein referred as Meteologger) which we are going to present in this paper. The system is based on an ATmega 16 microcontroller, which scans 8 sensors together at any programmable intervals. This paper presents the study of the mentioned project, application and some main characteristics of the prototype system and its program. We attempt to implement the system, and subsequently present the performance of tests regarding the mentioned system. To verify its functioning some comparison of this measurement system with two others commercial data-acquisition system (Campbell and Hobo H8) has been carried out
[en] Present article is devoted to situation in waste storage and influence of wastes on underground waters. At the same time the article shows the results of research works on physical and mechanical properties of wastes and it proves that wastes do not have harmful effect on both underground waters and the environment.
[en] Inversion-based feedforward techniques have been known to deliver accurate tracking performance in the absence of plant parameter uncertainties. Piezoelectric stack actuated nanopositioning platforms are prone to variations in their system parameters such as resonance frequencies, due to changes in operating conditions like ambient temperature, humidity and loading. They also suffer from nonlinear effects of hysteresis, an inherent property of a piezoelectric actuator; charge actuation is applied to reduce the effects of hysteresis. In this work, we propose and test a technique that integrates a suitable feedback controller to reduce the effects of parameter uncertainties with the inversion-based feedforward technique. It is shown experimentally that the combination of damping, feedforward and charge actuation increases the tracking bandwidth of the platform from 310 to 1320 Hz
[en] The corrosion deterioration in metallic structural elements, with the consistent loss of his physical and mechanical properties, is cause by errors in the design or fabrication, that allows the accumulation of humidity and contaminants in the surfaces, or acceleration zones of the corrosion processes, as the bimetalics pairs. The aggressiveness of the environment and the productive processes that develop in industrial installations, causes the apparition of premature failures that engage the edification use. The identification of design errors is the first step in the conservation of these structures. the elimination and made a project adapted to the proper installations conditions, is essential procedures to prolong the edification useful life with an optimum and rational use of the resources that destined for this end. The investigation is about the results obtained in the diagnostic and the conservation of industrial installment, with large exploitation periods, in which existed evidences of failures by corrosion, specifically to the elimination of errors of design. (Author) 12 refs
[en] Electrochemical study on cut edge corrosion of prepainted Zn coated (GI) and 55%Al-Zn coated (GL) steels has been performed in wet-dry cyclic conditions. Maximum width of delaminated polymer coating from the cut edge for GI and GL specimens was evaluated under wet-dry cyclic conditions. The cyclic tests were carried out for 1000 h by changing of relative humidity, where the salt of NaCl was deposited on the specimen every 48 h. The cut edge corrosion test under NaCl deposit indicated that the delamination of the GL specimen progresses at a higher rate than the GI. The electrochemical corrosion monitoring was also performed under condition of alternate exposure to immersion in NaCl solution and drying at 60%RH and 25 .deg. C. On the basis of the results of the delamination tests and electrochemical measurements, the mechanism of cut-edge corrosion for GI and GL were discussed
[en] To operate energy supply plants properly from the viewpoints of stable energy supply, and energy and cost savings, it is important to predict energy demands accurately as basic conditions. Several methods of predicting energy demands have been proposed, and one of them is to use neural networks. Although local optimization methods such as gradient ones have conventionally been adopted in the back propagation procedure to identify the values of model parameters, they have the significant drawback that they can derive only local optimal solutions. In this paper, a global optimization method called 'Modal Trimming Method' proposed for non-linear programming problems is adopted to identify the values of model parameters. In addition, the trend and periodic change are first removed from time series data on energy demand, and the converted data is used as the main input to a neural network. Furthermore, predicted values of air temperature and relative humidity are considered as additional inputs to the neural network, and their effect on the prediction of energy demand is investigated. This approach is applied to the prediction of the cooling demand in a building used for a bench mark test of a variety of prediction methods, and its validity and effectiveness are clarified
[en] In conventional air-conditioning systems, when the circulated air from the air-conditioned space pass through the cooling coil in the air-conditioning system, the air is over-cooled to eliminate the moisture as well as to decrease the temperature. The purpose of this study is to test and evaluate performance of the cooling/reheating system which can save both cooling energy and reheating energy by exchanging heat between the cooled air and reheated air. Experimental apparatus consists of fan, ducts, polymer exchangers, cooling coil, electronic auxiliary heater and data acquisition system. Two types of polymer exchanger, plate type and dimple type, made of polypropylene for cooling/reheating system are designed. Heat transfer and dehumidification characteristics of system are tested. The results show that the energy saving is up to 40% in the range of present experimented conditions, and it decreases with increasing velocity, inlet temperature and specific humidity
[en] Components will fail when loads (such as humidity, temperature, vibration, shock) are beyond the limits, which is a kind of common cause failures. In order to provide a desired level of reliability with minimum cost, the optimal model of multi-state series-parallel system subject to this kind of common cause failures is formulated. The universal generating function is adapted to analyze the reliability of multi-state system with mixing of components of different types, and genetic algorithm is used to solve the optimal model. A numerical example is illustrated to demonstrate the proposed method. The results show that common cause failures make the redundancy allocation strategy different. To provide the desired level of reliability with minimum cost, the mixture of components of different types is a very effective method.