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[en] A common coldrex, paracetamol, was used as humidity sensing material. The capacitance-type humidity sensor was fabricated by aerosol deposition method. The humidity sensitive properties were investigated through dielectric measurements. Our results reveal that the sensor has exciting performances in high relative humidity. Both −OH and −NH groups have contributions to water absorption. The −OH groups lead to a water-containing surface layer giving rise to pronounced Maxwell-Wagner response, which in turn, yields the humidity response that can be easily adjusted by an external electric field. This work indicates that the paracetamol is a promising humidity sensing material. (paper)
[en] Soil moisture (SM) feedback on climate variables especially temperature is an important aspect in land-atmosphere coupling. Based on the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) V2.0 SM data and the gridded observational temperature data, we statistically analyze the thermal feedback of SM over North China (NC). The results show that SM exerts a decreasing trend under the background of evident warming over NC, inducing a decadal enhancement of SM feedbacks on the local temperature and extreme hot events. The SM feedback contributes 6% of the total air temperature variation during 1961–2012, while it reaches 36% after the regional warming during 1994–2012. Such SM affecting temperature is mainly reflected in its feedback on daily maximum temperature, which is also intensified during the warm period. The decadal intensification is also found in the feedback of SM on hot extremes. Further analyses show that the abnormal changes of the latent and sensible heat fluxes caused by the SM anomaly are the main reasons that affect the thermal conditions. Besides, the rising Bowen ratio indicates that upward thermal transfer on the land surface is enhanced in recent years, which suggests that the atmosphere is more sensible to the abnormal heating on the ground. This consequently translates into the decadal intensification of the local thermal feedback of SM in summer over NC.
[en] Recently, the humidity sensors have captivated huge attention for making human life more comfortable and to diagnose several diseases. Here, we reported the excellent humidity responsiveness of V0.5Sn0.5Se2 ternary alloy for human breath monitoring and touchless positioning interface. The resistive sensor based on direct vapour transport grown bulk crystal of V0.5Sn0.5Se2 ternary alloy is fabricated and explored for its static response in different humidity levels ranging from 20 to 90%. The sensor showed excellent dynamic switching characteristics between relative humidity of 20% and 90% with responsivity of 6.78%, response time of 3.2 s and recovery time of 2.3 s. Subsequently, the sensor is exploited for giant responsiveness for human breath monitoring and words recognitions. The sensor exhibited quite distinct response towards different words namely, “Pratik”, “Chetan” and “Mohit”. Besides, novel touch-less positioning interface is explained with respect to humidity variation. Overall, the results advocate development of resistive sensors for intended humidity, biomedical as well as for intelligent touch-less sensing applications.
[en] Recording high quality biosignals by dry textile electrodes is a common challenge in medical health monitoring garments. The aim of this study was to improve skin–electrode interface and enhance the quality of recorded electrocardiography (ECG) signals by modification of textile electrodes embedded in WearItMed smart garment. The garment has been developed for long-term health monitoring in patients suffering from epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease. A skin-friendly electro-conductive elastic paste was formulated to coat and modify the surface of the knitted textile electrodes. The modifications improved the surface characteristics of the electrodes by promoting a more effective contact area between skin and electrode owing to a more even surface, fewer pores, greater surface stability against touch, and introduction of humidity barrier properties. The modifications decreased the skin–electrode contact impedance, and consequently improved the recorded ECG signals obviously when low pressure was applied to the electrodes, therefore contributed to greater patient comfort. The created contact surface allowed the natural humidity of the skin/sweat to ease the signal transfer between the electrode and the body, while introducing a shorter settling time and retaining moisture over a longer time. Microscopic images, ECG signal measurements, electrode–skin contact impedance at different pressures and times, and water absorbency were measured and reported.
[en] The differences in planetary boundary layer characteristics, in particular atmospheric boundary layer height (ABLH), humidity, and local circulations in pre-monsoon and monsoon period over the Erhai Lake, were simulated by the lake-atmosphere coupled model WRF v3.7.1. No lake simulations were also conducted to investigate lake effects over complex topography. During pre-monsoon period, local circulation was fully developed under weak synoptic system. The ABLH ran up to 2300 m or so. During monsoon period, temperature difference between land and lake became smaller, resulting in weaker local circulations. The height of circulation reduced by 500 m, and ABLH ran up to 1100 m during the day. Enhanced soil moisture and low surface temperature due to monsoon rainfalls in July could be the main reason for the slightly lower ABLH over the Erhai Lake area. Specific humidity of the boundary layer increased 8.8 g kg−1 or so during monsoon period. The Erhai Lake enlarged thermal contrast between valley and mountain slope in the Dali Basin. The lake reduced air temperature by 2~3 °C during daytime and increased air temperature by nearly 2 °C in the evening. Due to its small roughness length and large thermal capacity, the Erhai Lake enlarged lake-land temperature difference and local wind speed. A cyclonic circulation was maintained by the combination of mountain breeze and land breeze in the south of the lake. The lake decreased air temperature, increased specific humidity, and reduced ABLH during daytime, whereas the opposite effect is presented at night.
[en] This study compares the interdecadal variations in tropical cyclone (TC) activities over the western North Pacific (WNP) basin during the peak season (July–September) and late season (October–December) of 1955–2014 and explores the possible physical mechanisms behind the variations. Both the peak- and late-season tropical storm (TS) days show distinct interdecadal variations, while the late-season TS days lead the peak-season TS days by approximately 4 years on an interdecadal time scale. The late-season TC activity is related to the east-west sea surface temperature (SST) gradient across the equatorial Pacific. The westerly winds induced by the SST gradient can reduce the vertical wind shear and increase the low-level vorticity, which favors TC genesis over the TC genesis region. The peak-season TC activity appears to relate to the SST gradient between the Indian Ocean and the Central Pacific. The westerly wind induced by the SST gradient can reduce the vertical wind shear and increase the mid-level relative humidity, thereby enhancing the TC activity. The full picture of the interdecadal variation in the WNP TC activity during the peak and late seasons revealed in this study provides a new perspective on the seasonal TC forecasts and future projections.
[en] Due to increasing heat-related health risks, as well as the human requirements on energy and side effects, this study attempts to figure out a methodology of quantifying the potential requirements on human thermal comfort and air humidity towards the achievements of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Based on the Köppen-Geiger climate classification and the selected 11 climate types with sample cities, the methodology has been detailed. Meanwhile, the quantified thermal and humid conditions in each city, as the primary representation of each climate type, have been presented. According to the potential application of the quantified information and based on the qualitative analysis of SDGs text, the correlation between the information of human thermal comfort and air humidity, and 12 SDGs has been summarised. Furthermore, the difference of the qualitative description between the original Köppen-Geiger climate classification and the quantified information has been discussed. For instance, obvious difference appeared in the same climate zone (e.g. climate zone C); comparing with the original climate classification, there is a different order of hot/cold conditions or wet/dry conditions. The identified differences are regarded as the enlightenments for further studies.
[en] The PM2.5 as one of the main pollutants in Tehran city has a devastating effect on human health. Knowing the key parameters associated with PM2.5 concentration is essential to take effective actions to reduce the concentration of these particles. This study assesses the relationship between meteorological (humidity, pressure, temperature, precipitation, and wind speed) and environmental parameters (normalize difference vegetation index and land surface temperature of MODIS satellite data) on PM2.5 concentration in Tehran city. The Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) was employed to assess the impact of key parameters on PM2.5 concentrations in winter and summer. For this purpose, first the seasonal average of meteorological data were extracted and synchronized to satellite data. Then, using the ordinary least square model, the important parameters related to PM2.5 concentration were determined and evaluated. Finally, using the GWR model, the relationships between parameters related to PM2.5 concentration were analyzed. The results of this study indicate that meteorological and environmental parameters in winter season (71%) have a much higher ability to explain PM2.5 concentration than summer season (40%). In winter, PM2.5 concentration has a negative correlation with vegetation at most parts of the study area, a negative correlation with LST in the western and a positive correlation in the eastern part of the study area, a positive correlation with temperature, and a negative correlation with wind speed in the northeastern part of the study area. Precipitation has a positive correlation with PM2.5 concentration in most parts of the study area in both seasons. But, it was investigated in case of higher precipitation (more than 2 mm), PM2.5 concentration decreases. But, there is no negative relationship in any of the dependent parameters with PM2.5 concentration in summer. In this season, the air temperature parameter showed a high correlation with PM2.5 concentration. Also, spatial variations of the local coefficients for all parameters are higher in winter than in summer.
[en] The effect of high-frequency (HF) variability on latent heat flux (LHF) associated with the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) during the boreal winter is investigated through diagnosis using two reanalysis datasets and numerical experiments of an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM). The diagnostic results show that the HF activities exert an impact on the variability of MJO LHF mainly through their interactions with the longer than 90-day low-frequency background state (LFBS). The contribution of intraseasonal LHF induced by the interactions between LFBS and HF activities accounts for more than 20% of the total intraseasonal LHF over active MJO regions. The intraseasonal LHF induced by the LFBS–HF interaction is in phase with the MJO convection, while the total intraseasonal LHF appears at and to the west of the MJO convection center. This suggests that the intraseasonal LHF via the feedback of HF activity interacting with LFBS is conducive to the maintenance and eastward propagation of MJO convection. To confirm the role of HF disturbances in MJO convection activity, we carry out a series of experiments using the AGCM of ECHAM4, which captures well the general features of MJO. We select a number of MJO cases with enhanced convective signals and significant eastward propagation from a 30-year climatological simulation. Once the HF components of surface wind and moisture fields in LHF are excluded in model integration for each MJO case, most of the simulated MJO convection shows weakened activity and a slower propagation speed compared to the simulations containing all time-scale components. The outputs of these sensitivity experiments support the diagnostic results that HF activities contribute to the maintenance and propagation of MJO convection through the intraseasonal LHF induced by the scale interaction of HF activities with lower frequency variability.
[en] The climatic characteristics of 260 East Asian tropical monsoon depressions (EAMDs) are investigated using the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset and a tracking dataset of global monsoon low-pressure systems. Most EAMDs form over the South China Sea (SCS) and the western tropical Pacific Ocean in July–October and have an average lifetime of 10 days. The vertical structures of EAMDs are usually upright or tilt slightly westward with height. The warm-over-cold thermal structure is a distinctive characteristic of EAMDs and two potential vorticity (PV) centers are related to the warm core in the upper level and the specific humidity center in the lower level, respectively. We divided the EAMDs into four groups: eastward-moving, westward-moving, turning, and northwestward-moving EAMDs. Most of the eastward-moving EAMDs form over the SCS in May and June, whereas the westward-moving EAMDs form over both the SCS and the western Pacific Ocean in July–October. The turning and northwestward-moving EAMDs are mainly generated over the western Pacific Ocean and have longer lifetimes. The structures of the eastward-moving and turning EAMDs show common characteristics in each stage. Their vertical structures change from upright in the developing and peak stages to northeast tilting with height in the attenuating stage, especially for the specific humidity. By contrast, the structures of westward- and northwestward-moving EAMDs show little change during their lifetime. They are symmetrical relative to the vertical axis of the EAMDs over their whole lifetime and only vary in strength.