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[en] In the present study, differential interferometry and shadowgraphy are combined to determine cavitation-induced pressure fields and corresponding bubble dynamics during laser-induced single-bubble cavitation. An evaluation method is presented that allows to reconstruct the pressure distribution from interference images with high accuracy. The minimum reconstruction accuracy of the pressure amplitudes with the presented method is determined from synthetic data sets for an angular range of to be . On the basis of statistically evaluated data, the energy budget of single cavitation bubbles and the corresponding pressure wave energy could be determined also for weak pressure wave amplitudes in the order of . Graphical abstract: .
[en] A method to combine arbitrary order polarization vortex beams (PVBs) by Hermite–Gauss mode beams with designed field distributions is proposed. The orders of PVBs are determined by the modes of HG beams which are used in the combination scheme and the intensity distributions are the same as those of Laguerre–Gaussian beams. Simulations and experiments were also demonstrated, which verifies the feasibility of the proposed method.
BackgroundScenario design is currently not a standardised process. The formulation of storylines representing different dimensions (for example economic or societal developments) demands an investigation of assumption compatibility, coherence, and consistency. Scenario techniques that use expert opinion as the sole information source are particularly appropriate for personal decisions. Contexts where scenarios serve as decision support on a societal level—for example in political decision-making—benefit from unbiased, fact-depicting, multi-dimensional information that is available in statistical data.
MethodsThe presented approach uses the well-established method of Bayesian model averaging for the formulation of consistent, transparent, and intuitively understandable quantitative scenario assumptions. These assumptions are used in quantitative models to produce outlooks and forecasts. Illustrated by the example of quantitative energy models used to investigate developments of the energy system by scenario technique, the approach contrasts with other scenario methods. Bayesian model averaging (BMA) is a method that allows for an evaluation of both system relation stability in terms of observable co-evolvement of phenomena in the past and of future system states of interest based on expert opinion where past evolvements serve as a point of reference.
ResultsThe results are scenarios assessable with respect to (1) the consistency of scenario assumptions in terms of statistical confirmation, (2) the suitability of a quantitative model to represent the scenario, and (3) the statistical uncertainty of the scenario for a given quantitative model. A transparent scenario construction process results in traceable assumption documentation (an exemplary communication is provided in the Appendix). Perhaps, the most important novelty of the approach is the possibility of communicating to decision-makers the associated uncertainty in easily understandable terms. The distinction between provable possible assumptions (based on statistical evidence) and hypothetical assumptions is a novelty and significantly improves the aptitude of scenario study recipients to evaluate scenarios on their part.
ConclusionsBMA provides the possibility for decision-makers (and all recipients of outlooks based on scenario technique) to trace back results to assumptions and provide an evaluation of these assumptions in terms of statistical confirmation. As such, the approach adds to the currently limited methodological diversity in scenario construction techniques.
[en] The article Experimental investigation of the axial strength of glued-in rods in cross laminated timber, written by Boris Azinović, Erik Serrano, Miha Kramar, Tomaž Pazlar, was originally published online without Open Access.
[en] This paper studies a continuous-time mean-variance asset-liability management problem under the Heston model. Specifically, an asset-liability manager is allowed to invest in a risk-free asset and a risky asset whose price process is governed by the Heston model. By applying the Lagrange duality theorem and stochastic control theory, we derive the closed-form expressions of the efficient investment strategy and the efficient frontier. Moreover, we provide numerical experiments to analyze the sensitivity of the efficient frontier with respect to the relevant parameters in the Heston model.
[en] A longstanding question on the mechanically forced Faraday instability in rectangular geometries arises from a disparity between theory and experiments (Craik and Armitage in Fluid Dyn Res 15:129–143, 1995). It can be stated as: do corners in a rectangular geometry Faraday experiment cause the disparity between prediction and experiment? This study is an attempt to settle this question by comparing the Faraday instability for two fluids in rectangular geometries where corners must be present with equivalent annular geometries where such corners are necessarily absent. Non-idealities, i.e., damping, arising from a slight meniscus wave motion and induced sidewall damping are observed for thin gaps, causing discrepancies between the predicted instability thresholds and those determined experimentally. However, even for thin-gap geometries, experimental agreement between the tested rectangular geometry and its corresponding annular geometry remains excellent. This suggests that corner effects on the system stability are negligible for rectangular geometries and thus any disparity between theory and experiment is due principally to the damping caused by proximity of the lateral walls. Graphical abstract: .
[en] We have considered basic theoretical models describing various aspects of the formation and acceleration of plasma in pulsed accelerators. The discharge current, magnetic field, and plasma bunch velocity have been determined experimentally at different initial gas pressures in the accelerator chamber. We have considered the correspondence of some theoretical models of plasma acceleration to experimental data obtained in a KPU-30 coaxial accelerator. It is shown that the formation of the plasma in the coaxial accelerator depends on the plasma density, and acceleration processes at densities higher and lower than a certain transient density value on the order of 1011–1012 cm–3 are different. At a density higher than this critical value, the plasma is accelerated by a magnetic force. At the same time, at a low plasma density, plasma can be accelerated by an internal electric field.
[en] Experimental data on the interactions of charged particles with light nuclei have been compiled at the Institute of Nuclear and Radiation Physics of the Russian Federal Nuclear Center—All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) since 1973. Currently, this work is carried out by the staff of the Center of Nuclear Physics Data (CNPD), which was established in 1997 . The paper presents the main directions of the activities of the CNPD, describes its contribution to the development of the EXFOR international library of experimental nuclear data, and gives a detailed overview of the EXFOR-Editor software package for entering, editing, and writing data on nuclear reactions in the EXFOR format .