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[en] This conference raises an inventory of industrial applications and their perspectives for the year 1955. The speaker extrapolate for the forthcoming years the evolution of the role of the nuclear, the nuclear fuel, the different, types of atomic reactors and the state of advancement for different countries. (M.B.)
[fr]Cette conference dresse un etat des lieux des applications industrielles et de leurs perspectives pour l'annee 1955. L'orateur aborde entre autre l'evolution du role du nucleaire dans les annees a venir, le combustible nucleaire, les differents types de piles atomiques et l'etat d'avancement des differents pays. (M.B.)
[en] After a description of the origin of nuclear energy, the author presents and describes a chain reaction using natural uranium, the notions of flows and cross sections, the multiplication factor, critical dimensions and the reflector role, the evolution of this multiplication factor and the notion of reactivity. He briefly describes a typical pile and its auxiliary components (power measurement, power control, safety). He proposes an overview of the characteristics of a conventional high-power pile, of experimental piles, and of a plutonium-producing pile. He discusses double function piles, the partial multiplication of resources, the threshold value of the conversion factor in a thermal neutron pile, fast neutron piles, and describes the use of uranium as a source of energy. He finally briefly discusses the price of a thermal reactor which produces electricity and plutonium. Reprint of a paper published in 'L'Onde Electrique', no. 321, Dec 1953, p. 1-8.
[en] The use of nuclear reactor for energy production induces the installation of automatic control systems which need to be safe enough and can adapt to the industrial scale of energy production. These automatic control systems have to insure the constancy of power level and adjust the power produced to the energy demand. Two functioning modes are considered: nuclear plant connected up to other electric production systems as hydraulic or thermic plants or nuclear plants functioning on an independent network. For nuclear plants connected up with other production plants, xenon poisoning and operating cost lead to keep working at maximum power the nuclear reactors. Thus, the power modulation control system will not be considered and only start-up control, safety control, and control systems will be automated. For nuclear power plants working on an independent network, the power modulation control system is needed to economize fuel. It described the automated control system for reactors functioning with constant power: a power measurement system constituted of an ionization chamber and a direct-current amplifier will control the steadfastness of the power produced. For reactors functioning with variable power, the automated power control system will allow to change the power and maintain it steady with all the necessary safety and will control that working conditions under Pmax and Rmax (maximum power and maximum reactivity). The effects of temperature and xenon poisoning will also be discussed. Safety systems will be added to stop completely the functioning of the reactor if Pmax is reached. (M.P.)
[en] The National Commission for Nuclear Energy issued a law, enforced on January 1, 1956, in its position as an organ of the Federal Executive Power, with its own personality and patrimony, and the judicial capacities necessary to carry out its purposes: for all matters pertaining this law, 'atomic materials' are those included in the Mineral Resources; uranium, thorium and in general all elements from which energy may be obtained in large amounts through nuclear reactions, based upon the judgement of the Commission. The objective of the National Commission for Nuclear Energy is to control, survey, coordinate, foster and carry out: a) Exploration and exploitation of atomic material deposits, as well as the deposits of all other material that may be of specific use for the construction of nuclear reactors. b) Possession of atomic material. c) Exports and imports of such material. d) Imports and exports of equipment for the use of nuclear energy. e) Trade and local transportation of these materials. f) The production and use of nuclear energy, intended primarily to satisfy national needs. g) Scientific research in the field of nuclear fission and all related technical and scientific disciplines
[en] The present report gives an overview of the present facilities of energy productions in France and their perspectives. the electric production comes for half about power stations hydraulics and for half of thermal power stations. However due to the increase of the energy consumption, France is particularly interested by the atomic energy that appears to bring a supply in due time to the hydraulics and to limit a development of the thermal power stations to which the natural resources of France in classic fuel would not permit to cope presumably. The integration of the nuclear plants to the other production facilities will make itself gradually according to the evolution of the energy needs. (M.B.)
[fr]Le present rapport donne un apercu des moyens actuels de productions energetiques en France et de ses perspectives. la production electrique provient pour moitie environ de centrales hydraulique et pour moitie de centrales thermiques. Cependant face a l'augmentation de la consommation energetique, la France est tres particulierement interessee par l'energie atomique qui parait devoir apporter en temps utile la releve a l'hydraulique et limiter un developpement des centrales thermiques auxquels les ressources naturelles de la France en combustible classique ne permettraient vraisemblablement pas de faire face. L'integration des centrales nucleaires aux autres moyens de production se fera graduellment en fonction de l'evolution des besoins energetiques. (M.B.)
[en] The present report draws up the balance on the present and estimable energy consumption for the next twenty years. The present energy comes mainly of the consumption of coal, oil products and essentially hydraulic electric energy. the market development comes essentially of the development the industrial activity and of new applications tributary of the cost and the distribution of the electric energy. To this effect, the atomic energy offers good industrial perspectives in complement of the energy present resources in order to answer the new needs. (M.B.)
[fr]Le present rapport dresse le bilan sur la consommation energetique actuelle et previsionnelle pour les vingt prochaines annees. L'energie actuelle provient principalement consommation de charbon, de produits petroliers et d'energie electrique essentiellement hydraulique. l'evolution du marche provient essentielement du developpement l'activite industriel et de nouvelles applications tributaire du cout et de la distribution de l'energie electrique. A cet effet, l'energie atomique offre de bonne perspectives industrielles en complement des sources actuelles energetiques afin de repondre aux nouveaux besoins. (M.B.)
[en] The establishment of an atomic energy project is soon followed by the production of a variety of radioactive wastes which must be disposed of safely, quickly and cheaply. Experience has shown that much more thought has been devoted to the design of plant and laboratories than to the apparently dull problem of what to do with the wastes, but the nature of the wastes which will arise from nuclear power production calls for a change in this situation. We shall not be concerned here with power pile wastes, but disposal problems which have occurred in operation of experimental reactors have been serious enough to show that waste disposal should be considered during the early planning stages. (author)
[en] The authors propose an overview of the history and development of atomic piles. They first describe the process of evolution from the discovery of radioactivity to the creation of the first atomic pile (emergence of nuclear physics, to draw usable energy from matter, to achieve a chain reaction from uranium fission, creation of atomic piles). They describe various aspects of a typical atomic pile, such as the Chicago's one, by describing operating conditions, practical achievements, the pile control, implemented safeties, power measurement, high power piles, pile lifetime, and personnel protection. Then, they address the use of experimental piles, notably for plutonium production (brief description of some piles, description of the Chatillon pile and of Bepo). They propose an overview of the current status of pile technology (consequences of first acquisitions, trends of evolution), and present some new piles (Lopo-Hypo piles, Los Alamos fast reactor). They give an overview of the main innovations published and implemented in 1952. Reprint of a paper published in 'Electricite' journal, March 1953, p. 3-11.
[en] After having published during the year 1953 several articles on atomic piles, written by engineers of the CEA, which gave very interesting information on the construction, the operation and the control of the pile, and at a time when all nations are considering the peaceful uses of atomic energy, this series of articles is concluded by a remarkable study of Mr. Kowarski, one of the most well-known specialists, on using atomic piles for the generation of electrical energy; after a review of uranium nuclear properties this paper gives a clear picture of the opportunities that are available today and those that may be considered in the near future: pure fissile matter combustion, pure fissile matter simultaneous combustion and production, power and plutonium production from natural uranium, natural uranium piles that solely produce power. Reprint of a paper published in 'Electricite' journal, Jan 1954, p. 3-8.
[fr]Nous avons eu le plaisir de publier au cours de l'annee 1953 plusieurs articles sur les piles atomiques, rediges par des ingenieurs du Commissariat de l'Energie Atomique, qui ont donne de tres interessants renseignements sur la construction, le fonctionnement et le reglage des piles. A l'heure ou toutes les nations envisagent les utilisations pacifiques de l'energie atomique, nous sommes heureux de conclure cette serie d'articles par une etude remarquable de M. Kowarski, l'un des specialistes les plus connus, sur l'emploi des piles atomiques pour la production de l'energie electrique. Il y fait le point avec precision des possibilites qui s'offrent actuellement a nous et de celles qu'on peut envisager dans un avenir prochain. Reproduction d'un article publie dans 'Electricite', janvier 1954, p. 3-8.
[en] This article first proposes a presentation of the tidal theory and outlines the roles of Newton (to know the phenomenon), Laplace (to understand it) and Poincare (to act on it). The author then describes some tidal characteristics, notice than they can be different in different locations of the planet in frequency (two tides a day here, one tide a day there, or negligible) as well as in amplitude. Then, he addresses the history of cycles of use of tides, notably by exploiting the filling and emptying of basins by means of turbines (simple effect dam, double effect dam, pumping). He evokes some historical projects of tidal power plants in France, and then more particularly the Rance tidal power plant project, the Chausey and Minquiers projects. Article published in 'L'Astronomie' journal, Vol. 69, Dec. 1955, p.449-469.