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[en] Distributed generation units are desirable from an environmental point of view but also have an impact on the costs of electricity grids at the distribution and transmission level. Therefore, investment planning has to consider all benefits and costs of DG to build DG sources at sites where they are economically efficient. Unfortunately, this is not an easy task in an unbundled industry where distribution and generation of electricity are not planned by one single institution. For this reason, this article analyses possible policy options for giving incentives to distributed generation and focuses on the long-term investment signals related to DG.
[en] Thanks to new solar resource assessment techniques using cloud cover data available from geostationary satellites, it is apparent that grid-connected PV installations can serve to enhance electric grid reliability, preventing or hastening recovery from major power outages and serving to mitigate extreme price spikes in wholesale energy markets. (author)
[en] The photovoltaic energy sector is rapidly expanding and technological specification for PV has improved dramatically in the last two decades. This paper sketches the current state of the art and drafts three alternative scenarios for the future, in terms of costs, market penetration and environmental performance. According to these scenarios, if economic incentives are supported long enough into the next ten to twenty years, PV looks set for a rosy future, and is likely to play a significant role in the future energy mix, while at the same time contributing to reduce the environmental impact of electricity supply. (author)
[en] It is now frequently recommended, that only ecological resources can save us and keep for the mankind more or less contemporary way of living for future. During such consideration it is obviously forgotten that ecological wind and sun have occasional character and that still we do not know how to store great amount of energy. It is also not easy to estimate, what is the maximal capacity of such resources, supposing that we want all such energy use. Work estimate one special case in which all ecological resources are fully correlated-the same wind or sun on all places of local power stations-typically one state or economy. (Author)
[en] This two-part report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents several variants and two preliminary projects with respect to schemes for the use of hydropower in the Turtmanntal valley in the Swiss Alps. The various possible sites for the power stations both on the left and right-hand sides of the main valley are described. Technical details and prognoses for costs and energy production are discussed for all these variants. In the second part of the report, preliminary projects for hydropower installations on the Braendji and Piji streams are presented. Costs and economic viability are discussed and time-scales for the realisation are examined.
[en] A new methodology to evaluate unitary energetic production costs in the cogeneration power plants is proposed. This methodology exploits the energy conversion factors fixed by Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas. So it allows to settle such unitary costs univocally for a given plant, without assigning them a priori subjective values when there are two or more energy productions at the same time. Moreover the proposed methodology always ensures positive values for these costs, complying with the total generation cost balance equation.
[it]Viene proposta una nuova metodologia, per il calcolo oggettivo dei costi unitari delle produzioni energetiche negli impianti di cogenerazione. La metodologia proposta sfrutta i fattori di conversione, tra le varie forme di energia, stabiliti dal'Autorita per l'Energia. Percio ha il vantaggio di definire in modo univoco, per un dato impianto, tali costi unitari, senza doverli assegnare a priori, e in modo soggettivo, nel caso di due o piu produzioni contemporanee. Inoltre garantisce sempre che tutti i costi unitari abbiano valori positivi, rispettando l'equazione di bilancio dei costi complessivi di produzione.
[en] This paper analyzed the process for the approval of the 24 backup documents during the feasibility study stage of Fang Jiashan nuclear power plant, and defined the 27 backup documents and derivative documents that should be obtained during feasibility study stage for nuclear power construction projects, and finally expound the 8 representative documents in detail. The analysis showed that the process for the approval of all the backup documents under the Approval System prolonged the project construction period. It recommended that the backup documents can be obtained from the nine departments, such as those involved in the economic planning, urban planning, land use planning and nuclear safety, as well as environmental protection. (authors)
[en] Paper presents the results of the efforts to calculate the characteristics, the layout and the engineering design of the open cycle space power propulsion on the basis of the high-temperature nuclear reactor for a nuclear rocket engine and the Faraday 20 MW capacity MHD-generator. The IVG-1 heterogeneous channel-vessel reactor ensuring in the course of the experiments hydrogen heating up to 3100 K, up to 5 MPa pressure at the reactor core outlet, up to 5 kg/s flowsheet, up to 220 MW thermal power served as a reactor is considered. One determined the MHD-generator basic parameters, namely: the portion of Cs dope was equal to 20%, the outlet stagnation pressure - 2 MPa, the electric conductivity - ≅30 S/m, the Mach number - ≅0.7, the magnetic field induction - 6 T, the capacity - 20 MW, the specific power removal - ∼4 MJ/kg. Paper describes the design of the MHD-facility with the working fluid momentless discharge and its basic characteristics
[ru]Представлены результаты расчетов характеристик, разработки схемы и технического облика космической энергетической установки открытого цикла на основе высокотемпературного ядерного реактора для ядерного ракетного двигателя и фарадеевского МГД-генератора электрической мощностью 20 МВт. В качестве реактора рассматривался гетерогенный канально-корпусной ИВГ-1, который в экспериментах обеспечивал нагрев водорода до 3100 К, давление на выходе из активной зоны реактора до 5 МПа, расход - до 5 кг/с, тепловую мощность - до 220 МВт. Определены основные параметры МГД-генератора: доля присадки Cs - 20%, давление торможения на входе - 2 МПа, электропроводность - ≅30 См/м, число Маха - ≅0.7, индукция магнитного поля - 6 Тл, электрическая мощность - 20 МВт, удельный энергосъем - ∼4 МДж/кг. Представлена конструктивная схема МГД-установки с безмоментным выхлопом рабочего тела и ее основные характеристики