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[en] Our contribution aims at adding to the understanding of opposition to wind power. We follow the progressive emergence and structuring of a so-called “opponent” network to a highly conflictual wind power project (Seine-et-Marne, Parisian basin, France), paying particular attention to the shared landscape resources engaged in the development of this project. The paper draws on various strands of literature interested in landscape as a socio-material assemblage, a commons as a collective management of shared resources, and issues such as a political articulation of matters of public concern. Our case study suggests that local opposition to wind power is symptomatic of the shortcomings of French institutions’ treatment of the shared resources engaged in the development of wind power projects. So-called “opponents” to wind power are not opponents per se. Rather, opposition arises from the tension exerted by (French, privately developed) wind power with respect to shared (relational, landscape) resources. Thus opposition and landscape issues in relation to wind power can just as well be regarded as demands to recognize the necessary collective underpinnings of wind power projects. - Highlights: • The paper contributes to the understanding of opposition to wind power. • “Opponents” to wind power are not opponents per se. • Opposition arises from tensions on shared resources (relational, landscape). • These resources are necessary to develop wind power projects. • Opposition claims recognition of this collective underpinning of wind power projects.
[en] This paper explores the effects of policies and other factors driving innovation in wind power technologies in twelve OECD countries over more than two decades. Patent counts are used as an indicator for innovation. The factors considered are generally derived from the systems of innovation literature. Count data econometric model were used for the estimations. The suggest that patenting in wind power technology is positively related to public R&D in wind power (reflecting supply-side policy), the stock of wind capacity (reflecting learning effects), the number of patents per capita (reflecting a country's innovative capacity), and the share of Green party voters (reflecting the legitimacy of the technology). In particular, the presence of production or capacity targets for wind power or renewable energy sources and a stable policy environment (reflecting policy process) appear to be favourable for patenting wind power technologies. These results are robust to various model specifications, distributional assumptions, and alternative classifications of wind power technologies in the patent search. - Highlights: • Patenting in wind power is positively related to supply- and demand-side policies. • Patenting is positively related to innovative capacity and technology legitimacy. • Patenting is positively related to target setting and a stable regulatory framework.
[en] Offshore wind power (OSW) plays a key role within the UK strategy for a transition towards a low-carbon economy, offering vast potential for establishing a high-tech manufacturing industry. Previous experiences in the onshore sector (OWP) suggest the UK might fail in fully capturing these macroeconomic benefits. In this work, we investigate the history of UK renewable policies, comparing its national strategy to those of other major OSW-export countries. Through the use of a numerical general equilibrium model, we quantify the macroeconomic impacts under three scenarios: a baseline, which relies on previous estimates and foresee limited local content; a ‘contamination’ scenario, where the UK content reaches the same levels of OWP; and a ‘non-myopic’ scenario, where investors expect governmental support to decrease or disappear, replicating a common path of past renewable policies. We identify the UK as a FDI-oriented country. Our results suggest that increasing the share of locally-sourced capital goods in OSP to OWP-level could generate larger income and employment effects in the UK economy. We find that under forward-looking investors the economic benefits are significantly lower than the case of myopic agents. Our results show an inherent conflict with stated purposes of UK policy for OSW. - Highlights: • Offshore wind can fulfil both manufacturing and environmental objectives in the UK. • Historic energy policy paths in the UK and other EU countries are compared. • UK lag in establishing a national industry consistent with policy framework. • CGE model identifies benefits for cross-sectorial local content. • Lack of stability in past policies can reduce overall benefits.
[en] This paper presents the case of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), in Brazil, a state which implemented a regional industrial policy (IP/RS) in the wind energy sector, motivated by the comparative advantages of the state and by a national program to stimulate the development of this source of energy in Brazil. Exploring different theoretical views on the role of government and industrial policies in the economy, we investigated the bases, models and strategies used to design the IP/RS and the benefits gained from its implementation. The case study followed the inductivist paradigm using qualitative analysis of information from documentary and bibliographical research, as well as from data obtained through active participant observation. The IP/RS promoted the introduction of public goods and horizontal market interventions for the wind sector. The IP/RS was able to increase the competitiveness of the RS in relation to the other Brazilian states with high wind potential, demonstrated by the superior growth of RS in auctioned contracts and by the significant increase in wind power capacity in RS compared to the performance of other states. - Highlights: • A new theoretical framework distinguishes spaces of regional vs. national IPs. • Regional IPs contribute to development of wind energy at the national level. • Regional IPs are more effective locally than the isolated use of the national IPs. • Regional IPs can increase a state's ability to attract investment in wind energy. • Insertion of public goods and horizontal market actions are effective regional IPs.
[en] This paper uses large-scale micro data to identify key factors affecting the decision to adopt renewable energy generation (wind, solar and biomass) on farms in Scotland. We construct an integrated dataset that includes the compulsory agricultural census and farm structural survey that cover almost all farms in Scotland. In addition to farm owner demographics and farm business structures, we also assess the effect of diversification activities such as tourism and forestry, as well as the spatial, biophysical and geophysical attributes of the farms on the adoption decision. We find that diversified farms are more likely to adopt renewable energy, especially solar and biomass energy. Farms are also more likely to adopt renewable energy if they have high local demand for energy, or suitable conditions for renewable energy production. We find that biophysical factors such as the agricultural potential of farm land are important in adoption decisions. We identify adopter profiles for each type of renewable energy, and map the geographic location of potential adopters. We argue that renewable energy policy should be more integrated with farm diversification policy and farm support schemes. It should also be tailored for each type of renewable energy, for the potential adopter profiles of wind, solar and biomass energy all differ in farm characteristics and geographic distribution. - Highlights: • We integrate large-scale micro data to study on-farm renewable energy adoption in Scotland. • We study the decision to adopt wind, solar and biomass energy. • Diversified farms are more likely to adopt renewable energy. • Farms with high energy demand are more likely to adopt renewable energy. • Geophysical and biophysical factors are important in the decision to adopt renewable energy.
[en] This article focuses on the influence of increased wind and solar power production on the transmission networks in Central Europe. The German Energiewende policy together with insufficient transmission capacity between northern and southern Germany as well as the existence of the German-Austrian bidding zone heavily contribute to congestion in the Central European transmission system. To assess the exact impact on the transmission grid, the direct current load flow model ELMOD is employed. Two development scenarios for the year 2025 are evaluated on the basis of four representative weeks. The first scenario focuses on the effect of Energiewende on the transmission networks, the second one drops out nuclear phase-out and thus assesses isolated effect of increased feed-in. The results indicate that higher feed-in of solar and wind power increases the exchange balance and total transport of electricity between transmission system operator areas as well as the average load of lines and volatility of flows. Solar power is identified as a key contributor to the volatility increase, wind power is identified as a key loop-flow contributor. Eventually, it is concluded that German nuclear phase-out does not significantly exacerbate mentioned problems. - Highlights: • DC load flow electricity market model with focus on Central Europe is employed. • Impacts of rising power generation from RES on transmission grid is assessed. • Solar power is identified as a key contributor to the volatility increase. • Wind power is identified as a key loop-flow contributor. • Interconnectors between Germany and Austria are under the biggest volatility stress.
[en] To gain acceptance for renewable energy production sites, it is not sufficient to develop the appropriate technology without taking the social context and fairness concerns into account. Using a factorial survey experiment, we investigate the influence of both on the local acceptance of wind turbine developments in Germany and Poland–two countries differing in installed wind power capacity. Respondents were surveyed with hypothetical situations describing the construction of wind farms varying in the opportunity to participate in the planning process (participatory justice), the distribution of turbines across regions (distributive justice), and ownership, among other characteristics. We find higher acceptance levels in Poland than in Germany. Respondents in both countries are willing to accept new turbines in their vicinity if they can participate in decision making, the turbines are owned by a group of citizens, and if the generated electricity is consumed in the region instead of being exported. Overall, participatory justice is more important than distributive justice. Confirming previous results, we also find that respondents who already have turbines in their vicinity show higher acceptance levels than those who are not yet affected. Thus, the negative externalities are likely to be overestimated in the planning and implementation process. - Highlights: • A factorial survey experiment on local acceptance of wind turbines in Germany and Poland. • Attributes are comprised of procedural and distributive justice, among other factors. • Local acceptance levels of new turbines are higher in Poland than in Germany. • Opportunity to participate in planning matters more than distributive justice. • Those already exposed to turbines show higher acceptance of new wind turbines.
[en] This paper aims to identify the development of solar energy technologies through open innovation. Manuscripts about solar energy and open innovation published between the years 2000 and 2014 in journals indexed by Web of Science Core Collection were used to create a database and terms related to solar energy and open innovation were sought in papers title, summary and keywords. By using words “cooperation” and “collaboration” as a proxy to map open innovation, it was found that this approach exist widely for solar energy researches and most important publications was developed collaboratively. Social network analysis methodology was used to identified clusters of local, national and international partnerships, which prove that researches cooperation to solar energy technological development is true. International cooperation is prevalent in countries like the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Spain and Germany. National partnership occurs in Japan, United States, France, Italy and South Korea. China has predominant local cooperation profile, but it will be major international collaborative actor in solar energy researches next years. Also, a set of recommendations based on findings was provided to construct a better environment for cooperation and to improve solar energy researches. - Highlights: • Words “cooperation” and “collaboration” as a proxy to map open innovation. • Clusters of local, national and international partnerships were identified by SNA. • International cooperation predominance for European countries and local for China. • National cooperation is priority for the USA and some European countries. • China will be major international collaborative player in solar energy technology next years.
[en] In the context of increasing global efforts to migrate towards more sustainable energy systems, Paraguay is notable for boosting a power system based entirely on renewable sources. Paradoxically it has one of the lowest rates of electricity consumption in Latin America. Hence, a carefully crafted energy transition policy aimed at maximizing its energy resources could be the cornerstone of the country's long-term development strategy. The process of crafting public policy, particularly for emerging countries, entails an intricate decision problem involving several policy options with the potential to influence the country's welfare and all dimensions of socio-economic development. Thus, we present a policy-making tool applied to the multi-criteria decision energy policy problem in Paraguay, based on an Analytic Hierarchy Process model, which can aid in the crafting of more nuanced decisions. Here, four policy options are considered based on economic, technical, social, environmental and political criteria. Our findings are significant for the on-going policy debate on the “surplus question” in Paraguay and suggest that, considering the model employed, a policy oriented at directing the surplus to leverage the industrial cluster development is the best option. Additionally, we believe the proposed model could benefit other emerging economies for addressing similar policy dilemmas. - Highlights: • Policies for increasing the social welfare of a country with hydropower surplus. • New case study highlighting an energy transition in an emerging economy. • Four alternatives for the hydropower surplus use are analyzed under five criteria. • An AHP model assess the alternatives under different criteria weights. • Industrial sector development is the best alternative under the analyzed conditions.
[en] Electricity crisis has become a key issue in Pakistan mainly due to a tenacious and spreading gap between demand and supply. Moreover, the current production is causing severe environmental and energy security issues due to reliance on thermal sources. Stakeholders are hindered to address these issues due to a significant knowledge gap causing discrepancies in power policies. A comprehensive approach over the sustainability dimensions is missing due to non-adoption of life cycle thinking. This study adopts an integrated approach of life cycle sustainability assessment of the electricity sector in Pakistan for proposing policy guidelines and implementation framework to optimize the future energy mixes. In total, 20 sustainability indicators have been assessed covering life cycle of seven electricity generation sources, currently in use. These sources have been ranked by equally weighting the sustainability dimensions and respective indicators. Hydropower is found as the most sustainable option having lowest environmental and economic impacts. While due to worst economic and social impacts, oil is found to be the least sustainable option for the country. While establishing tradeoffs between different electricity generation sources, this study presents an unbiased view and highlights the worth of life cycle approach in sustainability assessment for improving the energy policies. - Highlights: • Summarizes the published indicators to study the sustainable electricity production. • Assesses the life cycle sustainability of electricity sector in Pakistan. • Recommends policy guidelines and implementation framework.