Results 21 - 30 of 2071
Results 21 - 30 of 2071. Search took: 0.025 seconds
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[en] In order to overcome the perverse incentives of excessive maintenance reductions and insufficient network investments arising with incentive regulation of electricity distribution companies, regulators throughout Europe have started regulating service quality. In this paper, we explore the impact of incorporating customers' willingness-to-pay for service quality in benchmarking models on cost efficiency of distribution networks. Therefore, we examine the case of Norway, which features this approach to service quality regulation. We use the data envelopment analysis technique to analyse the effectiveness of such regulatory instruments. Moreover, we discuss the extent to which this indirect regulatory instrument motivates a socially desired service quality level. The results indicate that internalising external or social cost of service quality does not seem to have played an important role in improving cost efficiency in Norwegian distribution utilities.
[en] Increased harmonization in the Nordic electricity market can lead to improved economic efficiency and a better functioning market. However, for many issues it is not harmonization as such that bring benefits, but coordination around the right policies. In this report several key harmonisation issues are identified. Optimal grid investments, and price signals to market participants to handle congestions and costs in the grid are probably the most important. The creation of a joint Nordic TSO could facilitate further harmonization. However, there are several practical challenges, most importantly ownership issues and political issues, which create significant obstacles which may be severe enough to prevent a successful move towards a joint TSO. Other less far reaching organizational changes, such as the creation of a Nordic grid company may be considered. Such a solution will however only handle a limited part of the issues, and it can also be questioned to what extent it brings actual benefits compared with a purely cooperative solution. Albeit, on the basis of a market survey of key stake holders we have completed there are different views on how well the current cooperative approach is functioning. It does seem clear that increased commitment and focus on the Nordic perspective is needed from the TSOs. (au)
[en] In the traditional EIA procedure environmental vulnerability is only considered to a minor extent in the early stages when project alternatives are worked out. In Norway, an alternative approach to EIA, an integrated vulnerability model (IVM), emphasising environmental vulnerability and alternatives development in the early stages of EIA, has been tried out in a few pilot cases. This paper examines the content and use of the vulnerability concept in the IVM approach, and discusses the concept in an EIA context. The vulnerability concept is best suited to overview analyses and large scale spatial considerations. The concept is particularly useful in the early stages of EIA when alternatives are designed and screened. By introducing analyses of environmental vulnerability at the start of the EIA process, the environment can be a more decisive issue for the creation of project alternatives as well as improving the basis for scoping. Vulnerability and value aspects should be considered as separate dimensions. There is a need to operate with a specification between general and specific vulnerability. The concept of environmental vulnerability has proven useful in a wide range of disciplines. Different disciplines have different lengths of experience regarding vulnerability. In disciplines such as landscape planning and hydrogeology we find elements suitable as cornerstones in the further development of an interdisciplinary methodology. Further development of vulnerability criteria in different disciplines and increased public involvement in the early stages of EIA are recommended
[en] This paper presents an analysis of the auction prices at the cross-border auction between West Denmark and Germany and between East Denmark and Germany (the Kontek cable). Monthly and annual transmission capacities appear to be more highly valued than daily transmission capacity on average. The two cross-border auctions show different trends: the auctions between West Denmark and Germany exhibit a higher level of prices in the southbound direction, and between East Denmark and Germany, higher prices in the northbound direction. We find a relatively strong correspondence in the pricing of products over different time frames (daily, monthly and annual auctions) between West Denmark and Germany and a weak correspondence for the products between East Denmark and Germany. In the daily auctions, market players can decide whether to use their capacity after the clearing of the day-ahead market, while in the monthly and annual auctions they must decide whether to use their capacity prior to clearing. If they choose not to use their capacity, the use-it-or-lose-it principle applies. The capacity is then subsequently released to the daily market. Since the daily cross-border auctions are free of commitment, they should be valued as options. Likewise, in the monthly and annual auctions market players can choose not to nominate their capacity but as this must occur before the clearing of the day-ahead market, they will not know the directions of the power flows a priori. If they nominate the capacity they must use it; if the direction turns out to be ''wrong,'' it is then possible to purchase capacity in the opposite direction in the daily auctions. If market players can accurately predict the outcome of the spot markets day ahead, the value of monthly and annual capacity should more closely reflect the value of an option. Thus, one would expect the value of the monthly and annual capacity to be between the value of an option and an obligation. Although this suggests that the average price of daily capacity should be greater than monthly and annual capacity, our data do not support this hypothesis. The daily, monthly and annual capacity auctions do not reflect the value of the underlying asset as specified by the appropriate valuation of the energy price differentials between West Denmark and Germany and East Denmark and Germany. Therefore, market players are exposed to substantial variation in fees for congestion management on the cross-border. We study whether arbitrage improves over time and discern no obvious trend. Since the explicit auction procedure has not been cost-efficient, a better approach appears to be the new market coupling arrangement introduced on the Kontek cable and on the border between West Denmark and Germany, with the result that market players will pay a congestion management fee (i.e. area price difference) equal to the energy price differential resulting from the market coupling mechanism. (author)
[en] The article presents briefly the results from a study on energy conservation in housing and points out that refurbishing may have a larger potential for reducing power consumption that many other solutions such as heat pumps (tk)
[en] The radiation protection community has only recently started the important work of preparedness for long-term post-accidental management of radioactively contaminated areas, like for instance the EC projects STRATEGY, FARMING and EURANOS and the French authorities' CODIRPA and PAREX programmes. There are, however, different views concerning how long a long-term management might last. Based on the Norwegian and former Soviet Union experience after the Chernobyl accident, it is clear that a nuclear accident can entail decades of necessary management and rehabilitation of living conditions. The time period is dependent on a number of factors, e.g. amount of fallout, type of radionuclides, land use of contaminated area, number and density of people affected and available techniques and resources for implementing countermeasures. This paper discusses the management strategy implemented in Norway after the Chernobyl accident, the need for changing strategy over time and the important involvement of affected groups. Careful planning and reflections should be undertaken before actions are taken in the recovery phase, keeping in mind the possibility of decades with problems.