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[en] This note illuminates the status and some elements in the Russian efforts on use of nuclear power, with special emphasis on northwest Russia. In addition the report describes an evaluation of the possibilities of Norwegian influence on the nuclear power in northwest Russia and Kola Peninsula
[en] KASAM, the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste, is an independent scientific council attached to the Ministry of Sustainable Development. The members of KASAM are independent scientists within a wide range of areas of importance for the final disposal of radioactive waste, not only within technology and natural sciences but also within areas such as ethics and social sciences. Swedish nuclear waste management policy and implementation is currently in a protracted phase of planning and decisions. Starting in 2006 , the Swedish Nuclear Waste Management Co (SKB) is expected to submit the necessary applications for permits to construct an encapsulation facility and a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel (in crystalline bedrock about 500 meters below the ground). According to Swedish legislation, basic permits have to be granted by the Government, but the Government will not grant such permits unless the concerned host municipality accepts the proposal. The Government decision will form the basis for detailed licensing decisions by the regulatory authorities. KASAM has an important role as an independent advisory body to the Ministry of Sustainable Development. Also, KASAM will continue its function of creating forums for dialogue that could contribute to increase knowledge and understanding and improve the knowledge base for decision-making. There are a number of questions that are relevant. Examples are: Will society have a satisfactory basis for decision-making? What happens if society is not capable of making necessary decisions? Does the decision-making process enable society to postpone important decisions if more time is needed, to avoid obstacles if they appear, and - if needed - reverse decisions? Considering issues like this, KASAM has set up a plan for its activities in the next few years. These activities are meant to contribute to the ability of society as a whole to arrive at a well-founded decision that is widely accepted. Based on facts presented in section , KASAM will focus its work during 2006 on the following issues: Seminar on Legal Requirements for Describing Alternative Sites and Methods; Seminar on The Decision-Making Process; Dialogues and Information with National Political Decision Makers; and Independent Research
[en] The quality and success of a nuclear waste management programme is based on the amalgamation of the interests of a wide number of stakeholders, integration of many different scientific disciplines, and merging of scientific, technical, ethical and social issues. In this process, a broad and structured review of all aspects of the program is necessary and we find the process with submission and review by stakeholders, regulators and government every third year very useful. High-quality critical review of is always a real benefit to the implementer - as it gives the implementer the possibility to see where improvements can be made. However, a close dialogue and a dynamic reviewing process, where questions are raised throughout the process, are essential in order to optimize the quality of the final applications. Naturally, critical review should not be used for pushing specific general research interests or issues that belong to the political arena rather than nuclear waste management itself. Moreover, critical review provides additional insight and promotes confidence by the general public. However, sometimes the public might be confused and have difficulties in judging the importance and relevance of critical comments. The implementer and regulatory authorities have a special duty to provide an overall perspective of safety-related issues. Even if critical review is valuable, the implementer can not only rely on this. The implementers' own internal quality assurance practise, internal review process as well as its overall safety culture is all crucial. Indeed, a successful management of radio-active waste, including operational aspects as well as siting process, starts with the implementers' own wish to perform state-of-the art-work both in terms of technology and overall approach
[en] This work begins with exposition of the basics of risk analysis. These basics are then applied to the Finnish radioactive waste disposal environment in which the nuclear power companies are responsible for all costs of radioactive waste management including longterm disposal of spent fuel. Nuclear power companies prepare cost estimates of the waste disposal on a yearly basis to support the decision making on accumulation of resources to the nuclear waste disposal fund. These cost estimates are based on the cost level of the ongoing year. A Monte Carlo simulation model of the costs of the waste disposal system was defined and it was used to produce preliminary results of its cost risk characteristics. Input data was synthesised by modifying the original coefficients of cost uncertainty to define a cost range for each cost item. This is a suitable method for demonstrating results obtainable by the model but it is not accurate enough for supporting decision making. Two key areas of further development were identified: the input data preparation and identifying and handling of (i.e. eliminating or merging) interacting cost elements in the simulation model. Further development in both of the mentioned areas can be carried out by co-operating with the power companies as they are the sources of the original data. (orig.)
[en] Swedish environmental NGOs have no complete consensus on the issue of nuclear waste management. However, concerning the demands on the the EIA process most of the opinions coincide. The following standpoints generally reflect those represented by MKG as interpreted by the author Continuation of nuclear waste production, also in connection with uranium mining, is inconsistent with sustainable development. The problems of nuclear waste management must be dealt with now and not left to an undecided future. However, this does not automatically mean that any final solution needs be implemented within a short period of time. Irrespective of storage or disposal method nuclear waste is a possible source for nuclear weapons for a very long time and must therefore be subject to long-term safeguards. Any storage or disposal must be designed considering the risk of intention or unintentional intrusion. The management of nuclear waste is a national task. The thus be performed on a national scale, not as now in the municipal and to some extent regional scale. The choice of method should precede the choice of site. The choice of method should be made according to a systematic process and considering functional conditions set up in advance. Different alternatives should be evaluated and compared according to strict long-term environmental standards that comply with sustainable development. This demands extensive information on more than one possible method. The choice of site should also be made according to a systematic process considering functional conditions set up in advance. A clear and understandable sieving process at a national scale should be performed to find the best possible site considering environmental conditions. Changes have to be made so that an independent body supervises the EIA process instead of the nuclear industry. This increases the chance that the choice of method and site gain legitimacy and acceptance in the eyes of ordinary citizens
[en] Andreyev Bay, nearly sixty kilometers from the Norwegian-Russian border, was from the 1960s, a military service base for Northern Fleet's nuclear-powered vessels. At the plant there is stored spent nuclear fuel from approx. 100 nuclear submarines, as well as plenty of other solid and liquid radioactive waste. After the operations at the facility terminated in the 1980s, there has been minimal maintenance, and parts of the area is heavily polluted. Russia has now started to remove spent fuel from the Andreyev Bay. (AG)
[en] Public Nuclear Waste Management Program KYT2010 is a research program which is organised according to the Nuclear Energy Act for the period 2006-2010. The research programme is directed by a Steering Group, appointed by the Ministry of Trade and Industry. The Steering Group coordinates the program administration and general trends in research. A Support Group functions as reinforcement for the Steering Group. The KYT2010 research program was established to ensure that the authorities have such sufficient and comprehensive nuclear engineering expertise and other facilities at their disposal that are needed for comparisons of the various ways and methods of carrying out nuclear waste management. The research themes are divided in three areas: strategic studies of nuclear waste management, long-term safety of disposal of spent nuclear fuel, sociological studies. The Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to evaluate the scientific output of the Finnish Nuclear Waste Management Programme KYT in 2007 and asked a panel of three members to carry out the task. The evaluation was based on material supplied by the Ministry and interviews of relevant stakeholders. Those interviewed were members of the Steering Group or of the Support Group or representatives of research projects or financiers. The interviews were carried out 29.10.-2.11.2007. According to the Evaluation Panel, the achieved results are in balance with the funding in general, the expertise covers the field and the programme is balanced to different fields in nuclear waste management. As far as the reorganization of the funding is concerned in general, the research program is in balance but maintaining the balance might require broadening of integration and interaction. In addition to these general remarks, the Evaluation Panel makes several comments and recommendations. (orig.)
[en] The objective of KYT2014 (Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Waste Management), run by the Ministry of Employment and the Economy, is to ensure the sufficient and comprehensive availability of the nuclear technological expertise and other capabilities required by the authorities when comparing different nuclear waste management ways and implementation methods. Research required for the supervision of nuclear waste management falls under other public authority programmes, whereas that related to the planning, implementation and development of nuclear waste management falls under research programmes conducted by licensees as part of their nuclear waste management obligation. The Framework Programme for 2011-2014 was prepared by a working group appointed by the Ministry of Employment and the Economy. The contents of the KYT2014 Research Programme comprise key research subjects in terms of national expertise. These include new and alternative nuclear waste management technologies, research into the safety of nuclear waste management and sociological research related to the issue. Through these research programmes, the aim is to assemble extensive, coordinated safety research wholes, particularly with respect to research on the capacity of buffer and filler materials in final disposal, the long-term durability of the final disposal canister, and safety case. Traditional projects, whether lasting one or several years, are also suitable for the Research Programme. The KYT2014 research programme serves as a discussion and communication forum between authorities, organisations engaged in nuclear waste management and research institutions, creating the preconditions for utilising limited research resources. It also strives to ensure a diverse and interdisciplinary research team for research projects. Another aim is to help secure the continuous availability of essential national expertise, while promoting scientific and high-level competence, and enhancing general knowledge in the field of nuclear waste management. (orig.)
[en] The joint UK-Norway project to dismantle a November-class nuclear submarine at the Nerpa Shipyard was completed in 2009. The reactor compartment was relocated to the Saida Bay Centre for long term storage.
[en] The presentation Global Threat Reduction Programme: Russia 2009 by Richard Hardiman from the Department of Energy and Climate Change, UK, reported on projects implemented in North-West Russia. They included the construction of a facility for SNF storage at Atomflot along with the provision of 50 storage casks; a number of infrastructure projects at Andreeva bay for safe removal of SNF; and the dismantlement of a decommissioned nuclear submarine jointly with Norway.