Results 1 - 10 of 105
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[en] We use social media to drive traffic to your core web pages. We use virtually always moving images (sometimes infographics) and hook up to the public debate or current events that are relevant to our business. The purpose of most of our communication is to create public opinion in favor of our business to help drive business targets.
[en] This study is positioned in a multidisciplinary research field addressing questions of innovation, foresight, risk perception, regulation, and the role of stakeholder experts as regards nanomaterials and nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is an innovative scientific field with many potential societal benefits but also high uncertainty about risks to human health and the environment. This study is based on a survey distributed to a sample of 237 expert stakeholders in Sweden working in the field of nanotechnology innovation and regulation. The sample comprises experts in both industry and government organizations. The paper explores the expert’s assessment of benefits, risks, and their views of nanotechnology regulation. The experts generally agreed on the need for further regulation of nanotechnology, although they differed in their support for different regulatory measures. Support for government regulation was increased by greater perceived risk and by ethical concerns, while perceived benefit decreased support for government regulation. If nanotechnology was important for the respondent’s organization of affiliation, support for government regulation decreased. Experts in government organizations were more in favor of stronger government regulation, perceived higher risks, and were more concerned about the ethical implications of nanotechnology than were the industry experts. While previous research has discussed views of experts, as well as comparing the attitudes of the general public with experts, this study contributes to the field by analyzing and identifying differences between industry experts and experts working in government.
[en] Finland has about 200 urban heating networks for an annual consumption of 35 TWh, half of them are supplied with heat from fossil fuels (coal, gas and oil) and peat (in Finland peat is considered as a slowly-renewable energy). A study has shown that small modular reactors (SMR) could fit 60% of the district heating networks and could suppress the use of fossil fuels and peat in the energy mix. Some cities like Helsinki, Espoo and Kirkkonummi have already launched feasibility studies but reactor manufacturers are waiting for the Finnish Safety Authority to implement a set of rules and requirements for the design and use of SMR for heat production. (A.C.)
[en] This annex was primarily aimed at tentatively applying the proposed Safety Goals Framework on the situation in Sweden, taking into consideration mainly laws and regulations, but also addressing some utility requirements. It is important to recognise that the application was not aimed to be complete. Still some general conclusions can be drawn. Thus, existing laws and regulations seem to provide a good coverage of the four layers of the Safety Goals Framework, including demonstrating adequate coverage of different types of facilities and covering the entire life span. The application of the Safety Goals Framework to Swedish conditions was quite easily done, i.e., it seems the framework and work process suggested in the TECDOC are quite easily applied.
[en] With the aim of understanding the nature of mining-induced seismicity, microseismic activity in the deep metal mine of Garpenberg (Sweden) has been recorded during 2 years of excavations. The studied area of the mine is operated using sublevel stoping method with backfilling, between depths of around 1000 and 1300 meters. Spatiotemporal analysis of microseismic activity is presented and correlated with the occurrence of mining blasts. A clear dependence is observed between blasts and seismic sequences, even if the rock mass response to mining appears to be very variable across space and time. Two main clusters are observed: one located in the major production area (Central Cluster), while the second (Right Cluster) is located at some distance from the excavations, in a zone characterized by a heterogeneous distribution of weak materials and stiff rock masses. By analyzing seismic source parameters, we demonstrate that the two clusters are characterized by different dynamics. In addition, we show how Right Cluster events are mainly controlled by geological heterogeneities, which impose high stress concentrations in the stiff rock masses surrounding weak lenses. High apparent stresses and corner frequencies associated with the Right Cluster events agree with our proposed model. This suggests elevated stresses in the seismic source region and small source dimensions; indeed, fractures cannot propagate along great distances due to the presence of weak lenses interbedded with the breaking stiff rock mass.
[en] In 2012, Posiva Oy submitted a construction licence application for a spent nuclear fuel disposal facility to be constructed at Olkiluoto, Finland. A safety case (TURVA-2012) was compiled to support the licence application. The disposal concept is based on the KBS-3 method. The reference design is the KBS-3V design, where the spent nuclear fuel canisters are emplaced individually in vertical deposition holes positioned along deposition tunnels. Posiva Oy is also studying, in collaboration with its Swedish counterpart SKB, an alternative design variant, KBS-3H, where the canisters are emplaced horizontally in 100−300 m long deposition drifts. This design variant was also included in the application as a potential alternative. In order to compare these two alternatives, a safety case, following Finnish regulatory requirements, is being produced for the KBS-3H design. The main objective is to determine whether KBS-3H can be shown to fulfil the longterm safety requirements with the same level of confidence as for KBS-3V. To this end, long-term safety related requirements specific to the KBS-3H design are being defined following Posiva’s requirements management system (VAHA). VAHA includes five levels of requirements spanning from legal and stakeholders’ requirements (level 1) to system requirements (level 2), performance targets and target properties (level 3), design requirements (level 4) and finally design specifications (level 5). The level 1 requirements, since they stem from laws and regulations, are identical for both designs. At lower levels, the differences in the designs have an increasing effect on the details of the requirements and design specifications. The set of release barriers is partly different in the two designs, as are the types and dimensions of the emplacement areas and their construction methods. The development of the KBS-3H-specific requirements starts by defining the barriers of the KBS-3H design and assigning safety functions for the individual barriers. The safety functions will then give rise to performance targets, and subsequently to the more detailed requirements and specifications at lower levels. The safety case for KBS-3H will then evaluate whether the horizontal design fulfils these requirements. The requirement definition includes interesting aspects related to the fact that KBS-3H has been developed over decades in parallel to the reference design KBS-3V, and it includes several novel solutions and unique components not included in KBS-3V. The iteration among requirements formulation, safety assessment and design development is particularly visible in this project. (author)
[en] In this study, we used eight sites from across Europe to investigate the implications of a future climate (2 °C warmer and 20% drier) and a changing ozone profile (increased background concentrations and reduced peaks) on stomatal ozone fluxes of three widely occurring plant species. A changing ozone profile with small increases in background ozone concentrations over the course of a growing season could have significant impacts on the annual accumulated stomatal ozone uptake, even if peak concentrations of ozone are reduced. Predicted increases in stomatal ozone uptake showed a strong relationship with latitude and were larger at sites from northern and mid-Europe than those from southern Europe. At the sites from central and northern regions of Europe, including the UK and Sweden, climatic conditions were highly conducive to stomatal ozone uptake by vegetation during the summer months and therefore an increase in daily mean ozone concentration of 3–16% during this time of year (from increased background concentrations, reduced peaks) would have a large impact on stomatal ozone uptake. In contrast, during spring and autumn, the climatic conditions can limit ozone uptake for many species. Although small increases in ozone concentration during these seasons could cause a modest increase in ozone uptake, for those species that are active at low temperatures, a 2 °C increase in temperature would increase stomatal ozone uptake even in the absence of further increases in ozone concentration. Predicted changes in climate could alter ozone uptake even with no change in ozone profile. For some southern regions of Europe, where temperatures are close to or above optimum for stomatal opening, an increase in temperature of 2 °C could limit stomatal ozone uptake by enhancing stomatal closure during the summer months, whereas during the spring, when many plants are actively growing, a small increase in temperature would increase stomatal ozone uptake.
PurposeIn support of the sustainable development of our societies, future engineers should have elementary knowledge in sustainability assessment and use of life cycle assessment. Publications on pedagogical experience with teaching life cycle assessment (LCA) in high-level education are however scarce. Here, we describe and discuss 20 years of experience in teaching LCA at MSc level in an engineering university with the ambition to share our insights and inspire teaching of LCA as part of a university curriculum.
MethodsWe detail the design of an LCA course taught at the Technical University of Denmark since 1997. The course structure relies on (i) a structured combination of theoretical teaching, practical assignments and hands-on practice on LCA case studies, and (ii) the conduct of real-life LCA case studies in collaboration with companies or other organisations. Through the semester-long duration of the course, students from different engineering backgrounds perform full-fledged LCA studies in groups, passing through two iterations—a screening LCA supporting a more targeted LCA.
Results and discussionThe course design, which relies on a learning-by-doing principle, is transparently described to inspire LCA teachers among the readers. Historical evolution and statistics about the course, including its 192 case studies run in collaboration with 105 companies and institutions, are analysed and serve as basis to discuss the benefits and challenges of its different components, such as the theory acquisition, the assignment work, the LCA software learning, the conduct of case studies, the merits of industrial collaborations and grading approaches.
ConclusionsWe demonstrate the win-win situation created by the setting of the course, in which the students are actively engaged and learn efficiently how to perform an LCA while the collaborating companies often get useful insights into their analysed case studies. The course can also be an eye opener for companies unfamiliar with LCA, who get introduced to life cycle thinking and the potential benefits of LCA. We have no hesitation in recommending industries and LCA teachers to engage into such collaborations even in the fundamental teaching of LCA techniques.
[en] Faced with the danger of global warming, many countries engaged in the energy transition have instituted a carbon tax or are preparing to do so. The best known example is Sweden, where a carbon tax was introduced as early as 1991. After gradual increases, the tax reached a high level in 2018 (125 Euros/tonne of carbon), which is supported by the whole political field, social partners and the population
[fr]Face au peril du rechauffement climatique, de nombreux pays engages dans la transition energetique ont institue une taxe carbone ou s'appretent a le faire. L'exemple le plus connu est celui de la Suede, ou une taxe carbone a ete mise en place des 1991. Apres des augmentations progressives, la taxe a atteint en 2018 un niveau eleve (125 Euros/tonne de carbone), qui recueille l'adhesion de l'ensemble du champ politique, des partenaires sociaux et de la population