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[en] Following the United States’ launch of the Atoms for Peace program in the 1950s, nuclear power appeared to be the modern solution to humankind’s energy problems. West European democracies like Austria, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, and Sweden developed plans to supply nuclear energy nationwide. Early protests started in 1954 after atomic testing in the Pacific and were directed against military use of nuclear power and atomic weapons. Later protests shifted the focus to civilian use of atomic power like nuclear energy supply. Although in the course of the 1970s trust in this technology began to fade in many European countries, including the five states presented in this book, each of them dealt with this challenge in a different way. This volume identifies commonalities and differences in the nuclear pathways of the five European countries and points out the crucial impact of democratic traditions and national histories for a European continent urgently trying to find its common identity.
[en] Finland and Sweden are the countries with the most advanced plans for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) has evoked both countries as good examples in the use of a 'partnering' approach, designed to achieve both a licensable site supported by the community and a balance between fair representation and competent participation. While both countries are consensus driven high-trust societies, with similar technological concept for SNF disposal, and whose licensing processes have advanced at fairly similar pace, both also possess their own distinct characteristics. One difference concerns the role of the communities in siting and licensing of the repositories. The paper examines 1) the background for this differentiation, 2) how local final disposal organisations in the host communities Eurajoki and Östhammar took shape and evolved, and 3) how differences between the organisations illustrate the divergence between the Finnish and Swedish approaches to stakeholder engagement. While the Swedish approach can be characterised as 'involved partnership' – which shapes the operating environment for the implementer and authorities, by challenging and even modifying the policies and actions – the Finnish case could be described as a 'bystander partnership' characterised by trust in safety authorities, with community economics as the primary concern. (author)
[en] The objectives were to survey MR safety incidents in Sweden during a 12-month period, to assess severity scores, and to evaluate the confidence of MR personnel in incident-reporting mechanisms. Data were collected within a web-based questionnaire on safety in clinical MR environments with CT for comparison. Data reported MR and CT safety incidents (human injury, material damage, and close calls), incident severity, and confidence of participants in incident-reporting systems. The study population consisted of 529 eligible participants. Participants reported 200 MR and 156 CT safety incidents. Among MR incidents, 16% were given the highest potential severity score. More MR workers (73%) than CT workers (50%) were confident in being aware of any incident occurring at their workplace. However, 69% MR workers (83% for CT) were not aware of reported incidents at their hospitals. Safety incidents resulting in human injury, material damage, and close calls in clinical MR environments do occur. According to national risk assessment recommendations, risk level is high. Results indicated that MR personnel tend to a false sense of security, as a high proportion of staff members were sure that they would have been aware of any incident occurring in their own department, while in reality, incidents did occur without their knowledge. We conclude that false sense of security exists for MR.
[en] In contemporary interventional cardiology, for typical elderly patients, the most severe radiation-related harm to patients can be considered to come from skin exposures. In this paper, maximum local skin doses in cardiological procedures are explored with Gafchromic film dosimetry. Film and reader calibrations and reading were performed at the Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratory of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), and data were gathered from seven hospitals in Finland. As alert levels for early transient erythema, 200 Gycm2 kerma area product (KAP) and 2000 mGy air kerma levels for transcatheter aortic valve implantations (TAVI) procedures are proposed. The largest doses were measured in TAVI (4158.8 mGy) and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) (941.68 mGy). Accuracies of the GE DoseWatch and Siemens CareMonitor skin dose estimates were reasonable, but more results are needed to reliably assess and validate the tools capabilities and reliabilities. Uncertainty of the Gafchromic dosimetry was estimated as 9.1% for a calibration with seven data points and 19.3% for a calibration with five data points. (authors)
[en] Quality control is the part of quality management focused on fulfilling quality requirements as defined in ISO 9001:2015. Surveillance and verification activities are one of the core activities under the licensee’s responsibilities (ISO 19443:2018). It is of paramount importance that the conformity assessment is performed in such way that, the party performing control and inspection activities is independent from design and execution. According to good practices of quality control (example NQA-1 [IV-3]), those verifying activities affecting quality shall have sufficient authority, direct access to responsible levels of management, organizational freedom, and access to work to perform this function, including sufficient independence from cost and schedule when opposed to safety function considerations. The principles of ISO/IEC 17020:2012 are followed and focus shall be given to impartiality of quality control activities such as: • Inspection activities shall be undertaken impartially; • The inspection body shall be responsible for the impartiality of its inspection activities and shall not allow commercial, financial or other pressures to compromise impartiality; and • The inspection body shall identify risks to its impartiality on an ongoing basis. This shall include those risks that arise from its activities, or from its relationships, or from the relationships of its personnel. However, such relationships do not necessarily present an inspection body with a risk to impartiality.
[en] The eye lens exposure among 16 technicians in two nuclear medicine departments at university hospitals in Finland was investigated by measuring the operational quantity Hp(3) using EYE-D dosemeters. For all workers, the annual mean Hp(3) was estimated to be 1.1 mSv (max. 3.9 mSv). The relation between Hp(3) to routinely monitored personal dose equivalent Hp(10) was clearly correlated. Considering individual dose measurement periods (2-4 weeks), the Hp(3)/Hp(10) ratio was 0.7 (Pearson's coefficient r = 0.90, p < 0.001, variation of ratio 0.1-2.3). The variation decreased considerably with increasing Hp(10) (σ2 = 0.04 vs. 0.43 for Hp(10) >0.1 mSv vs. <0.1 mSv, respectively), i.e. higher Hp(10) predicts Hp(3) more reliably. Moreover, annual Hp(10) data from national dose register during 2009-2018 were used to derive the annual Hp(3) applying the Hp(3)/Hp(10) ratio. The data from Finnish nuclear medicine departments imply that routine measurements of Hp(3) among nuclear medicine technicians are not justified. (authors)
[en] Within the context of a prerequisite of decarbonization of the building sector in order to reach carbon neutrality, this report more particularly addresses the thermal as well as energy renovation, i.e. the building energy improvement and the evolution of heat and domestic hot water production sources towards the use of more efficient and low carbon equipment. The report also addresses stakes of adaptation to climate change during renovation operations. Four countries are more particularly examined: Germany, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Sweden. Policies adopted by these countries as well as their results are compared with the French ones. The study is based on a very large bibliography of reports and studies published on various aspects of the building sector, and results in a set of recommendations which concern the implementation of conditions of massification of energy renovation, the consistency of objectives of energy renovation and of reduction of vulnerabilities, a stronger integration of decarbonization of energy vectors in the renovation strategy, the development of instruments for co-ownerships, a better integration of renovation policies into territorial plans and programs, the implementation of a structural and consistent strategy for the renovation of the public building stock, and strengthened follow-up and assessment of building energy renovation
[fr]Avec 18 pc des emissions directes de gaz a effet de serre provenant du secteur des batiments et 36 millions de logements en 2019, la decarbonation complete de ce secteur est indispensable a l'atteinte de la neutralite carbone en France. Le rapport du Haut conseil pour le climat, 'Renover mieux: lecons d'Europe', analyse les politiques publiques et les solutions de quatre pays europeens (Allemagne, Pays-Bas, Royaume-Uni et Suede) et identifie des pistes d'action pour accelerer la renovation energetique des batiments en France. Il demontre et detaille le besoin d'un engagement massif et durable de l'Etat et du secteur prive dans les dix prochaines annees pour decarboner les logements et les batiments tertiaires en France. Cette mobilisation sera par ailleurs creatrice d'emplois stables et de rentrees fiscales. Le rythme des renovations energetiques - en moyenne de 0,2 pc par an - doit fortement s'accelerer pour atteindre 1 pc par an apres 2022 et 1,9 pc par an d'ici 2030. Pour le secteur residentiel, il s'agit de passer des 60-70000 renovations profondes effectuees annuellement (2012-2016), a 370000 renovations completes par an a minima apres 2022 et 700000 par an a partir de 2030, conformement aux objectifs fixes dans la Strategie nationale bas-carbone (SNBC). Si tous les pays etudies dans ce rapport constatent une amelioration de la performance energetique de leur parc de logements, seule la Suede a reussi une decarbonation quasi-totale du secteur. En tenant compte des differences de climat, la France apparait comme ayant les logements les moins performants par rapport aux autres pays. La performance energetique des batiments residentiels en France progresse a un rythme similaire a la moyenne europeenne, alors que celle des batiments tertiaires (bureaux, commerces et restaurants, ecoles et hopitaux) progresse moins vite. La Suede doit son succes a un effort continu sur plusieurs decennies, comprenant des normes exigeantes de performance energetique, des investissements dans les reseaux de chaleur et plus recemment vers le chauffage electrique avec pompes a chaleur, accompagne d'une taxe carbone. L'Allemagne se distingue par la diversite de ses politiques publiques, comprenant d'importantes subventions aux menages et aux entreprises conditionnees a l'atteinte de resultats avec un role fort de la banque publique d'investissement. Les Pays-Bas se distinguent par la gouvernance du secteur et la mise en valeur de solutions locales pour permettre la sortie du parc de sources de chauffage carbonees et l'elaboration de feuilles de route du parc public. Finalement, l'experience du Royaume-Uni sur la mise en oeuvre des obligations de renovations des passoires thermiques sont eclairantes pour ces politiques sectorielles. Les experiences etrangeres et les experimentations deja en place dans les territoires permettent au Haut Conseil pour le Climat de formuler de grands ensembles de recommandations afin de renforcer les politiques de renovation energetique francaise: - Massifier la renovation energetique par la mise en place de conditions financieres et reglementaires. Renforcer les politiques de renovation ciblant les coproprietes et les rendre obligatoires; - Mettre en oeuvre les obligations de renovation de la loi energie climat de maniere coherente avec la reduction des vulnerabilites, alors que 6,7 millions d'individus sont touches par la precarite energetique en 2017; - Integrer plus fortement l'usage de sources d'energie bas-carbone dans la strategie de renovation, et mieux integrer la renovation et l'offre de chaleur renouvelable dans les plans et politiques territoriaux; - Renover les batiments publics, par exemple en definissant des feuilles de route par branche de ce parc; - Suivre et evaluer les politiques de renovation energetique des batiments, et y adosser des conditionnalites de l'aide publique a des niveaux de performance exigeants. Ce rapport evoque egalement les enjeux d'adaptation au changement climatique lors de la renovation des batiments, en particulier le confort thermique en saison chaude, qui doivent etre identifies selon les regions et inclus dans les strategies de renovation. La massification des renovations permettra egalement de repondre aux enjeux actuels de reprise economique, d'emploi et de pouvoir d'achat a travers la reduction de la facture d'energie, comme le soulignait le Haut Conseil pour le Climat dans son rapport annuel 2020.
[en] The requirements for reducing the greenhouse gas emissions of the power sector in Europe will result in a significant increase of generation from variable renewable energy sources (VRES). The presence of such technologies may pose significant challenges to the traditional operation and structure of the existing transmission grid. In this thesis, the integration of VRES into the future European power system is investigated until the year 2050. The introduced challenges translate to challenges of modeling the power system as well. Hence, the numerical modeling as well as the existing European framework of power system operation is described in detail, including the corresponding literature. In this thesis, a novel multi-level methodology for the generation dispatch that respects transmission constraints and includes flexible demand operation is introduced to model the pan-European power system. The final development of the model is completed via the determination of the system’s boundary conditions and technical parameters with respect to grid infrastructure, generation and demand in high spatio temporal resolution. The resulting model is verified for the year 2015 against historical conditions and forms the basis for the implementation of all future European scenarios. The future power system is analyzed for the years 2030, 2040 and 2050 with respect to VRES integration and the impact of demand flexibility. It is found that the main grid congestion occurs between the North and Baltic Sea regions and Central Europe. This congestion becomes responsible for the majority of the resulting VRES curtailments, which are related to wind generation. The total amount of curtailments for the reference case is 88 TWh for Germany and 729 TWh for Europe, out of which it is concluded that the most suitable locations for exploiting the corresponding curtailment energy occurs in western Denmark and western Ireland. Regarding the impact of demand flexibility, it is found that the overall impact is relatively small (7.6% reduction in VRES curtailments) and therefore more flexibility options should be considered. Moreover, it is found that VRES integration is more sensitive to the shifting duration rather than to the available flexibility especially when seasonal flexibility is allowed, while also it is shown that shifting in space can also become very beneficial (27% reduction). However load shifting cannot constitute the only solution for their mitigation but further alternatives may be required as well. Examining all scenarios for 2050, it is found that the average amount of VRES curtailments becomes 592 TWh and that this value approximately doubles every 10 years from 2030 to 2050. Finally, it is shown that the level of the spatial resolution for the transmission grid representation plays a significant role with respect to VRES integration, where even models with 100-200 nodes can underestimate the total curtailments by half.
[en] This study aimed to determine the exposure to radiation delivered to the patient during routine intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) in cholecystectomy and examine the factors affecting radiation dose and fluoroscopy time (FT). From January 2016 to December 2017, 598 IOC examinations were performed. This study included 324 intraoperative cholangiographies performed with c-arm equipment not exceeding 10 years of age. When residents performed the procedures, the mean kerma area product (KAP) was 0.36 (standard deviation [SD] 0.70) Gycm2 and in specialist surgeons group 0.36 (SD 0.47) Gycm2, P = 0.47. In residents group, the mean FT was 11.4 (SD 10.1) seconds and in specialist surgeons group, 9.2 (SD 11.9) seconds, P < 0.01. Linear regression analysis showed association between increased KAP-values and the presence of common bile duct (CBD) stones and body mass index (BMI). Age, BMI, laparoscopic surgery, acute cholecystitis, presence of CBD stones, resident surgeon performing IOC and ASA III-IV were associated with higher FT. National diagnostic reference level for IOC has not been introduced in Finland so far. Our mean KAP values (0.36 Gycm2) were 3-4 times lower and FT (10.1 seconds) were 3-5 times lower than the few reported in the literature. Routine use of IOC during cholecystectomy results in relatively low-radiation dose performed either by residents or specialist surgeons, irrespective of whether CBD stones were visualized or not. (authors)
[en] Contemporary collective effective doses to the population from X-ray and nuclear medicine examinations in Finland in 2018 was estimated. The estimated effective dose per caput from X-ray examinations increased from year 2008 to 2018 respectively from 0.45 mSv to 0.72 mSv and from nuclear medicine examinations from 0.03 mSv to 0.04 mSv. The proportional dose due to CT examinations of the total collective effective dose from all x-ray examinations increased from 58% in 2008 to 70% in 2018 and the dose did not change substantially in total when new conversion factors were applied. The collective effective dose from conventional plain radiography did not change substantially during the last ten years while the new (ICRP 103) tissue weighting factors were taken into use in 2018, however frequencies of examinations in total decreased. The collective effective dose from CT in nuclear medicine tripled between 2009 and 2018. (authors)