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[en] The global mean surface air temperature has increased by 0.6 ± 0.2 deg C during the 20th century and by about 0.7 deg C in Finland over the same period. Most of the observed warming over the last 50 years is thought to be attributable to increases in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. There is also widespread evidence (including some from Finland) that this warming has already had discernible impacts on many physical and biological systems. Projected future climate changes are expected to have significant adverse effects on natural ecosystems, biodiversity, human health, and flood risk in Finland, while beneficial effects include increased crop yields and timber production and reduced winter energy demand. Worldwide, adverse impacts are expected to fall disproportionately on poorer countries and populations. Regardless of any foreseeable reductions in emissions, some future climate change appears to be unavoidable, so society must be prepared to adapt to the inevitable consequences of climate change. Adaptation is thus a necessary complement to mitigation as a policy response to climate change, and has the potential to reduce many of the adverse impacts of climate change and to enhance beneficial impacts. However, understanding of adaptive capacity is relatively poor across all sectors in Finland, and lags behind comparable work in some other countries. In this report a number of research recommendations are suggested to redress this imbalance. (orig.)
[en] This project deals with threats from smuggling or other illegal transportation of radioactive or nuclear materials across the borders to Sweden, and with the security of handling such materials in Sweden. The project has included studies of relevant documentation; visits and interviews at industries, hospitals, research institutes and military institutions in Sweden that handle radioactive materials; a pilot study at the Stockholm freeport, where equipment for detection of radioactive materials has been tested for six months; an analysis of incidents reported to the IAEA database; and an analysis of Swedish incidents. The following conclusions are drawn: Stricter rules regarding the physical protection of radiation sources and radioactive materials should be implemented in Sweden. The recommendations recently issued by IAEA should serve as a point of departure for working out such rules
[en] Flexible delivery reliability (FLP), which is in focus in this report, means that the customer shall be able to choose from a number of different grid tariffs of different qualities. This way he shows his actual willingness to pay for quality. It is an important difference compared with the KILE system, which is based on a surveyed willingness to pay. As it is planned to be implemented, FLP assumes that the customer must choose one of a number of different subscriptions and that he makes his choice based on his own preferences and costs what suits him best. The various subscribers entail different degrees of delivery reliability. For the grid companies, customers and regulatory authorities the FLP represents a challenge. It is assumed that the customers have a conscious attitude or preference with respect to delivery quality. That is not always the case today
[en] At the end of the year 1995, the Swedish electricity market was reformed. The reform chiefly entailed the production and sale of electricity being separated from the transmission of electricity (the network operation). Electricity production and trading were exposed to competition - while the network operation was retained as a natural monopoly. In this publication, we describe the extensive developments that have taken place during the last ten years on an electricity market that was previously relatively static. We also deal with Svenska Kraftnaet's role in this context. The Swedish electricity market consists of many independent players. These are: electricity producers; network owners; the system operator (Svenska Kraftnaet); electricity consumers; electricity traders in the role of electricity suppliers; and/or balance providers; marketplaces, primarily the power exchange NordPool. Svenska Kraftnaet owns the national grid and has the role of System Operator. This means ensuring that the plants of the Swedish electricity system are working together in an operationally-reliable way and that production and import corresponds to consumption and export. The regional networks transmit electricity from the grid to the local networks, and in some cases to large-scale consumers. The local networks distribute electricity to the consumers within a certain geographical area. For connection and transmission, the consumer pays a network fee (network account). The Power Trading Company sells electricity to the final customers. The power trader can have the role of Electricity Supplier and/or Balance Provider. Both roles can exist within the same or different companies. The electricity supplier has a supply agreement with the consumer. The balance provider is financially responsible for the electricity that the trader sells always being in balance with the electricity purchased to cover consumption. Organised marketplaces, for example the power exchange Nord Pool, as well as brokers, provide standard agreements which make it easier for the players on the market to do business with each other. The bulk of the trade in electricity on the market takes place via bilateral agreements between electricity producers and electricity traders. The possibility to supervise the network operation is central to the electricity market being able to work well, as well as preventing the network companies from abusing their monopoly position. The Swedish National Energy Administration is the network authority, and is responsible for this supervision. It must ensure that the network tariffs are reasonable and that the network operation does not subsidise other activities. A separate licence - the supply concession - was initially introduced. Companies obtaining such a concession - the supply concessionaires - were obligated to supply electricity to consumers not wishing to change supplier. During the autumn of 1998, parliament adopted adjustments to the Electricity Act in accordance with the European Parliament's and the European Council's directive regarding joint rules for the internal electricity market, known as the Electricity Market Directive. In October 1999, parliament decided to abolish the requirement for hourly meters for the majority of consumers, and introduce profile-settlement of consumption instead. The system of supply concessions was abolished at the same time. This had the effect of making it financially viable also for small-scale consumers to buy electricity on the open market. The legislative changes came into force on 1 November 1999. Svenska Kraftnaet is a utility charged with managing and operating Sweden's national grid and overseas links. The grid encompasses the country's 400 and 220 kV power lines. Svenska Kraftnaet is also the System Operator under the Electricity Act. This entails having the overall responsibility for electrical plants working together in an operationally-reliable way so that a state of balance between the production and consumption of electricity can be maintained throughout the country. Svenska Kraftnaet's objectives are; offering reliable, efficient and environmentally-adapted transmission of electricity on the grid, promoting an open and competitive Nordic electricity market, discharging its system responsibility cost-effectively and working for a robust and flexible electricity supply during times of crisis and war. Svenska Kraftnaet and Statnett - which has the system responsibility in Norway - jointly own the Nordic power exchange, Nord Pool, with headquarters in Oslo. Svenska Kraftnaet and Finnish system operator Fingrid jointly own a smaller power exchange for balance adjustment, EL-EX, located in Helsinki. Nord Pool and EL-EX work closely together - among other things acting as agents for each other's products, which complement one another. A decision has been taken to merge Nord Pool spot market and EL-EX to form a new company - Nord Pool Nordic Elspot - to be owned 20 % each by Nord Pool, Statnett, Svenska Kraftnaet and Fingrid and 10 % each by Eltra and Elkraft System, the Danish system operators. Nord Pool and Nord Pool Nordic Elspot will - from the customer's view - work as one market place. Svenska Kraftnaet's role on the open electricity market is to co-ordinate the trade in electricity with the physical transmission and balancing of electricity in Sweden. Svenska Kraftnaet introduced a new tariff system for the grid on 1 January 1995. The objective was to: promote competition on the electricity market, by being sufficiently flexible to allow new types of customers and contracts offer a simple, open and predictable tariff, so that the players can calculate their transmission costs cover its own costs for managing and operating the national grid provide the players with financial and technical signals as regards losses, bottlenecks, etc
[en] The evaluation of market transformation programmes requires the development of new methods, relative to methods used for the evaluation of traditional energy efficiency programmes. In this paper, a model for the evaluation of market transformation programmes is proposed, based in part on evaluation methods discussed in the literature. The proposed model entails an extensive evaluation process, including the evaluation of market transformation effects, the impact of these effects, and the evaluation of the outline of the programme. Furthermore, evaluations of Swedish market transformation programmes have been analysed in relation to the proposed model. The analysis shows that not all of the evaluations have been focused on market transformation, and those that have, are only partly consistent with the evaluation model proposed here. It is concluded that future evaluations of Swedish market transformation programmes should be extended and improved in accordance with the proposed model. (author)
[en] In this paper we use data from the Swedish National Survey of Forest Soils and Vegetation (NSFSV) to evaluate the present acid-base status of forest soils to try to answer the following questions. Which role do anthropogenic and biological acidification play for the present acid-base status of the soil profile? What is the present acid-base status of Swedish forest soils and how large areas may be considered as severely acidified? Do the current tendencies in soil acid-base status correspond with the positive development in surface waters?
[en] The Finnish electricity market is a part of the physically interconnected Nordic market which also includes Denmark, Norway and Sweden. All countries are nowadays deregulated in slightly different ways, and the central co-ordination of power generation is replaced with the market based power exchange NordPool. In Finland the deregulation was performed step by step, so that first the customers above 500kW were allowed to change their supplier in November 1995. From January 1997 all customers were free to select their suppliers provided that they had a remotely-read hourly meter. Since November 1, 1998 all small customers (below 3 x 63A, about 45kW) have been able to change their supplier without any extra costs. As a result of competition most of the larger customers have changed their suppliers or negotiated new contracts with their existing supplier. Of the 2.2 million small customers, only about 3% have changed supplier, but the electricity prices for all customers have decreased. (Author)
[en] This paper is focussed on how municipal elected leaders in three Swedish feasibility study municipalities - Nykoeping, Oskarshamn and Tierp - have tried to ensure that future decisions by their respective municipalities will be based both on factual knowledge and on existing opinions held by the general public. These efforts have contributed to an empowerment of the legitimacy of municipal decision-making within the nuclear waste management field and, probably, also served as a factor contributing to trust building with regard to these issues. The three cases show three ways to handle the problem, although there are also common features. The municipalities of Nykoeping and Oskarshamn have been facing these issues since 1995. In the case of Tierp, the municipality was confronted in late 1998 with the task to choose a strategy for its involvement in the site selection process and then, immediately, implement that strategy. A decision to construct a final repository for spent nuclear fuel has an obvious local dimension. It is not enough that an implementer is capable of developing a method that is considered to be safe enough by the regulatory authorities and by the Government. Nor is it enough that the implementer has succeeded to choose a site that these institutions consider to be suitable. A vital condition for a successful result is also that the general public, especially people living close to the site, have trust in the process leading up to the decision - and of course also that the general public is confident that the implementer and the regulator have agreed on a sound technical solution of the disposal problem. In other words, decisions in this area by Government and regulatory authorities do not only have to comply with existing legislation (obviously decisions by such bodies have to be 'legal'); they also should have a democratic legitimacy. In a representative democracy like Sweden, with high voting participation, it may seem self-evident that the municipality's elected politicians, i.e. particularly members of the municipal council and the municipal board, should be regarded as the legitimate representatives of the municipality, and hence the representatives of the population. But is this 'formal' approach enough when deciding on issues connected with the establishment of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel? Which means of interaction between the elected representatives and the public can be initiated in order to ensure that decisions by the former will reflect dominating opinions within the latter - thus contributing to creating trust in the decision-making process? How do the elected representatives handle a situation where concerned groups of citizens, acting alongside the more or less established political parties, claim to reflect a more true picture of the public attitude than what is presented by the ordinary municipal politicians?