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[en] The Finnish national standards for ionizing radiation are maintained by the Radiation Metrology Laboratory (DOS) at Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) in Helsinki. STUK maintains national standards for ionizing radiation in accordance with Finnish legislation (Radiation Act 859/2018). STUK was established in 1958 operating under the Medical Administration as the Department of Radiation Physics with the task of inspecting radiation sources used in hospitals. At the end of 1960’s, STUK became an independent safety authority operating under the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health. The national standards for ionizing radiation have been maintained since 1971.
[en] During a meeting between contractors and invited participants held in Vienna 9-13 November 1964 the participants discussed the results reached under specific contracts and some related scientific topics, all relevant to the Joint FAO/IAEA coordinated programme on plant nutrient supply and movement in soil systems. At that occasion the present author formulated a question (Lamm, 1965) to the Panel: Are we today in a position to take practical advantage of the new and modern methods discussed in order, to gain more information on the availability of soil testing and fertilizer experiments. In its recommendations, the Panel emphasized the necessity of bridging the gap between new information based on such methods and research programmes on efficient use of fertilizers. The Panel further expressed the opinion that the solution of such problems of wide concern would be advanced by coordination of research efforts. Using the summary and recommendations (IAEA technical report series No. 48, 1965) in the above mentioned .panel as frame of reference a coordinated programme on investigations of soil nutrient availability by use of modern concepts has been discussed at meetings between Scandinavian scientists under the auspicies of specialized committees of NJF (Scandinavian Agriultural Research Workers' Association). Due to practical reasons this investigation has now been undertaken in Denmark with Danish soils since January 1966. The work is also carried out under a research agreement with IAEA and partly financed through a grant from the Danish Government Fund for Scientific and Industrial Research. With an initial emphasis on phosphorus as plant nutrient the purpose of this project is to investigate physical, chemical, thermodynamic and kinetic properties in a number of representative soil samples throughout the country. The work is carried out in close cooperation between representatives of the Government Crop Husbandry Research Service, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural College, Atomic Energy Research Center, Ris, and this laboratory.
[en] A brief summary of Swedish research and development work on the utilization of plutonium is presented. As a background, plutonium production from Swedish reactors in the years 1970 - 1980 has been estimated, based on an actual forecast for installed nuclear capacity during the same period. (author)
[en] Conclusions: • Existing laws and regulations provide a good coverage of the four layers of Safety Goals. • Adequate coverage of different facilities and entire life span. • Limited use of probabilistic safety goals; most detailed defined by industry. • The proposed framework and hierarchy of Safety Goals can be easily applied to the Swedish context. → This presentation is incomplete: Limited time available, not sufficient to provide a full picture. • The triangle fully captures the conceptual aspects of the framework and hierarchy, and the matrix provides specific examples: – Important not to see the matrix as a complete checklist!; – Good as a completeness check; – indicates areas that are lacking or unclear defined.
[en] The presentation provides information on a joint Russian-Norwegian expedition to investigate the status of the Russian nuclear submarine K-27 (powered by experimental, liquid-metal cooled reactors, using a Lead-Bismuth eutectic alloy), which was dumped with fuel on board in the Kara Sea. The results of gamma-spectrometry investigations of the submarine hull and sediments near the submarine were presented. The main conclusion was that the presence of radionuclides had not increased as compared to the previous investigations held in 2006. Planning for the next investigations and scenarios of the submarine decommissioning were presented.
[en] Sustainable development has by now become an element deeply integrated in the everyday design. It has many shades and may be found under many names. We speak about resiliency in design and procurement of passive, ecologic, plus energy, or nZEB buildings. Nevertheless, if we look closely, we may distinguish certain characteristic ideas. First, sustainable development of societies and urbanization processes should be consistent on a deeper level than presently, and be included within design processes, organization, and planning, as well as modernization and redevelopment procedures of existing urban tissue. Secondly, urbanization should be perceived holistically, as an interaction and harmonious development of both natural and manmade environments, with solutions based on the best technical and technological standards available. Lastly, described ideas are achievable only, if we include continuous cooperation between urban planners, architects, specialist consultants, as well as energy-efficient interdisciplinary solutions to achieve high standard energy measures. One of the thresholds is economic feasibility; the other is health and well-being of the users which should always be discussed as a priority. This paper—outside a brief theoretical approach to initial procedures in design management—will dwell on transformation and modernization of an existing building belonging to the Warsaw University of Technology, one of the oldest universities in Poland, its founding dating back to the beginning of the twentieth century. In 2015, a Nordic Finance Mechanism grant dedicated to the nZEB technology transfer from Norway to Poland was awarded to a group of researchers from Warsaw University of Technology and NTNU Trondheim. The main aim of the project is implementation of nZEB knowledge in Poland, as well as preparation of two integrated concept designs for public (University) buildings as exemplary case studies which could act as the benchmarks for other public buildings.
[en] We identified and analyzed the characteristics of the 100 top-cited papers in the field of biogas using the Clarivate Analytics Web of Science database. The characteristics analyzed were the publication year, type of document, journal of publication, country and research institution, and citation life cycle. The top-cited papers were published between 1988 and 2015, with the majority published between 2006 and 2011, and were from 36 countries. These papers appeared in 44 journals and represent 28 Web of Science categories. Germany published most of the papers and the Technical University of Denmark was the most productive research institution.
[en] SSM's research objectives: • To reduce uncertainties in accident progression, in particular with regard to ex-vessel phenomena and risk for early containment failure. • To improve knowledge about iodine chemistry in containment, in particular with respect to organic iodine. • To support improvements of accident management strategies. • To improve effectiveness and reliability of source term prediction in emergency situations.
[en] In this study, we analyze the time-varying causality linkages between energy consumption, economic growth, and environmental degradation in 33 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries, spanning the period 2000 to 2013. The curve causality approach provides evidence of a significant environmental Kuznets curve in 25 countries in the case of the ecological footprint and in 23 countries in the case of the Environmental Performance Index. However, out of them, only Italy, Slovakia, and South Korea have traditional environmental Kuznets curve, in the form of an inverted U–shaped curve. For the remaining countries, different forms of curves are valid. In particular, an N-shaped curve appears to be valid between income and environmental degradation for nearly half of the sample, i.e., for Austria, Belgium, Chile, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, New Zealand, Turkey, and the USA. Additionally, bidirectional causality relationships are confirmed among all covariates in most countries. In view of the results, some crucial policy implications would be suggested, such as sustainable development that aims to make a balance between economic growth and environmental protection.
[en] An updated version of FATEMOD, a multimedia fugacity model for environmental fate of organic chemicals, was set up to assess environmental behaviour of three pharmaceuticals in northern Lake Päijänne, Finland. Concentrations of ibuprofen, diclofenac, and carbamazepine were estimated at various depths at two sites: near a wastewater treatment plant and 3.5 km downstream the plant. When compared with environmental sampling data from corresponding depths and sites, the predicted concentrations, ranging from nanograms to hundreds of nanograms per litre, were found to be in good agreement. Weather data were utilised with the model to rationalise the effects of various environmental parameters on the sampling results, and, e.g. the roles of various properties of lake dynamics and photodegradation were identified. The new model also enables simultaneous assessment of transformation products. Environmentally formed transformation product concentrations were estimated to be at highest an order of magnitude lower than those of the parent compounds, and unlikely to reach a detectable level. However, a possibility that conjugates of ibuprofen are present at higher levels than the parent compound was identified. Simulation results suggest that environmental degradation half-lives of the inspected contaminants under stratified lake conditions are in the range of some weeks to months.