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[en] Analysis of 163 isolated substorms showed that their intensity quantified as a maximum absolute value of the AL index increases with an increase in the velocity and number density of the solar wind plasma and hence its dynamic pressure. Most of the coupling functions describing the energy loading to the magnetosphere, e.g., the Kan–Lee electric field (EKL) and the Newell factor (dΦ/dt), do not include the dynamic pressure as an input parameter. Having examined the correlation between these functions and the dynamic pressure, we found that, surprisingly, while almost uncorrelated for any arbitrary time interval, both EKL and dΦ/dt correlate with the dynamic pressure within 1 h before the onset of isolated substorms. That is, an increase in the solar wind dynamic pressure is associated with an increase in the solar wind driving before the onset. We assume that the increase in the dynamic pressure as early as before substorm growth path creates the conditions inside the magnetosphere that impede the occurrence of substorms and increase the threshold for the instability leading to expansion onset, forcing the accumulation of greater amount of energy in the magnetosphere. This energy is released during substorm expansion, producing a more intense magnetic bay. .
[en] Particle acceleration in space and astrophysical reconnection sites is an important unsolved problem in studies of magnetic reconnection. Earlier kinetic simulations have identified several acceleration mechanisms that are associated with particle drift motions. Here, we show that, for sufficiently large systems, the energization processes due to particle drift motions can be described as fluid compression and shear, and that the shear energization is proportional to the pressure anisotropy of energetic particles. By analyzing results from fully kinetic simulations, we show that the compression energization dominates the acceleration of high-energy particles in reconnection with a weak guide field, and the compression and shear effects are comparable when the guide field is 50% of the reconnecting component. Spatial distributions of those energization effects reveal that reconnection exhausts, contracting islands, and island-merging regions are the three most important regions for compression and shear acceleration. This study connects particle energization by particle guiding-center drift motions with that due to background fluid motions, as in the energetic particle transport theory. It provides foundations for building particle transport models for large-scale reconnection acceleration such as those in solar flares.
[en] A specific type of artifacts (named as “p2p”), that originate due to displacement of the image of a moving object along the digital (pixel) matrix of receiver are analyzed in detail. The criteria of appearance and the influence of these artifacts on the study of long-term oscillations of sunspots are deduced. The obtained criteria suggest us methods for reduction or even elimination of these artifacts. It is shown that the use of integral parameters can be very effective against the “p2p” artifact distortions. The simultaneous observations of sunspot magnetic field and ultraviolet intensity of the umbra have given the same periods for the long-term oscillations. In this way the real physical nature of the oscillatory process, which is independent of the artifacts have been confirmed again. A number of examples considered here confirm the dependence between the periods of main mode of the sunspot magnetic field long-term oscillations and its strength. The dependence was derived earlier from both the observations and the theoretical model of the shallow sunspot. The anti-phase behavior of time variations of sunspot umbra area and magnetic field of the sunspot demonstrates that the umbra of sunspot moves in long-term oscillations as a whole: all its points oscillate with the same phase.
[en] The material of solar prominences is often observed in a state of flowing. These mass flows (MF) are important and useful for us to understand the internal structure and dynamics of prominences. In this paper, we present a high resolution H observation of MFs within a quiescent solar prominence. From the observation, we find that the plasma primarily has a circular motion and a downward motion separately in the middle section and legs of the prominence, which creates a piecewise mass flow along the observed prominence. Moreover, the observation also shows a clear displacement of MF’s velocity peaks in the middle section of the prominence. All of these provide us with a detailed record of MFs within a solar prominence and show a new approach to detecting the physical properties of prominence.
[en] Data from spacecrafts suggest that space plasma has an abundance of suprathermal particles which are controlled by the spectral index κ when modeled on kappa particle velocity distribution. In this paper, considering homogeneous plasma, the effect of integer values of κ on the damping rate of an obliquely propagating magnetosonic (MS) wave is studied. The frequency of the MS wave is assumed to be less than ion cyclotron frequency, i.e., . Under this assumption, the dispersion relation is investigated both numerically and analytically, and it is found that the real frequency of the wave is not a sensitive function of κ, but the imaginary part of the frequency is. It is also shown that for those values of κ where a large number of resonant particles participate in wave–particle interaction, the wave is heavily damped, as expected. The possible application of the results to the solar wind is discussed. (paper)
[en] Sunspots are the most important indicator of the magnetic activity on the solar surface during a cycle. Every sunspot group is formed and shaped by the magnetic field of the Sun. Hence, the magnetic field intensity shows itself as the size of a sunspot group area on the surface. This shows that getting the development or evolution of sunspot groups over time means getting the change of magnetic field intensity during same interval. Here, to reveal the evolution of sunspot groups in a cycle, a method called Solar Cycle Analyzer Tool (SCAT) is presented. This method was developed as a part of Computer-Aided Measurements for Sunspots (CAMS) because the same subroutines and subprograms were used for calculations (Çakmak in Exp. Astron. 38:77–89, 2014). The developed software tracks sunspot groups every day and gives them the same group number. The confirmation is made by the user to prevent counting re-formations as a continuation of an old group in the same active region. With this method, the evolution of every sunspot group can be listed for each cycle year besides other cycle features like the daily and monthly sunspot relative numbers and distribution frequency of the sunspot group types. Since 2015, SCAT is being used to get data for the annual reports of Istanbul University Observatory.
[en] This study pertained to the relationship between critical frequency of F/sub 2/ layer (foF/sub 2/) and solar activity indices at three low latitude ionospheric stations during solar cycle 22 (1985-1996). The selected ionospheric stations lie in the latitudinal range of Pakistan: therefore, this investigation may also be useful to understand the impact of solar activity relevant to our region. The monthly median values of foF/sub 2/ for Okinawa, (26.3ON, 127.8O E), Guangzhou, (23.10O N, 113.4O E) and Chongqing (29.50O N, 106.40O E) have been plotted against sunspot number (SNN) and solar radio flux (F10.7cm). The main purpose of this analysis was to compare the foF/sub 2/ values at low latitude ionospheric stations. A comparison of different phases of solar activity with foF/sub 2/ at the subject stations revealed almost similar patterns. The correlation coefficients between SSN and critical frequency of F/sub 2/ layer (foF/sub 2/) on hourly basis for all months were compared. These trends helped in understanding foF/sub 2/ occupancy in the region of Pakistan during solar cycle 22. A strong dependence was observed between solar activity and foF/sub 2/ during this period. Ikubanni et al.  have already investigated the trends of F2 layer critical frequency at a low latitude station, during solar cycle 22. This comparative study of foF/sub 2/ was regarding Chongqing, Okinawa, and Guangzhou that have not been explored as yet. These studies emphasized the behavior of foF/sub 2/ for all these stations and identified the latitude dependency of foF/sub 2/ on solar activity. A better agreement was observed during the year of moderate solar activity (MSA). An International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model has been used to reveal foF/sub 2/ missing values. (author)
[en] Based on the theory of diffusive shock acceleration of charged particles, we investigate the formation of proton spectra and the generation of an Alfv’en turbulence spectrum by accelerated (storm) particles at the interplanetary shock front in the event occurred at 14:22 UT on April 4, 2001. We formulate a scenario whereby a satisfactory theoretical description of the observed proton and Alfv’en wave spectra obtained from measurements becomes possible: the propagation of solar cosmic rays in interplanetary space before the interplanetary shock arrival at the Earth’s orbit creates an enhanced level of Alfv’en turbulence in the solar wind, which reduces the diffusion coefficient of particles and increases the efficiency of their acceleration.
[en] We analyze high-resolution observations from the 1.6 m telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory that cover an active region filament. Counter-streaming motions are clearly observed in the filament. The northern end of the counter-streaming motions extends to a light bridge, forming a spectacular circulation pattern around a sunspot, with clockwise motion in the blue wing and counterclockwise motion in the red wing, as observed in the Hα off-bands. The apparent speed of the flow is around 10–60 km s−1 in the filament, decreasing to 5–20 km s−1 in the light bridge. The most intriguing results are the magnetic structure and the counter-streaming motions in the light bridge. Similar to those in the filament, the magnetic fields show a dominant transverse component in the light bridge. However, the filament is located between opposed magnetic polarities, while the light bridge is between strong fields of the same polarity. We analyze the power of oscillations with the image sequences of constructed Dopplergrams, and find that the filament’s counter-streaming motion is due to physical mass motion along fibrils, while the light bridge’s counter-streaming motion is due to oscillation in the direction along the line-of-sight. The oscillation power peaks around 4 minutes. However, the section of the light bridge next to the filament also contains a component of the extension of the filament in combination with the oscillation, indicating that some strands of the filament are extended to and rooted in that part of the light bridge.
[en] This paper examines the small-scale solar wind turbulence driven in view of the Alfvén waves subjected to ponderomotive nonlinearity. Filamentation instability is known to take place for the case of dispersive Alfvén wave (DAW) propagating parallel to the ambient magnetic field. The ponderomotive force associated with DAW is responsible for wave localization and these webs of filaments become more intense and irregular as one proceeds along the spatial domain. The ponderomotive force associated with pump changes with pump parameters giving rise to different evolution patterns. This paper studies in detail the nonlinear evolution of filamentation instability introduced by dispersive Alfven waves (DAWs) which becomes dispersive on account of the finite frequency of DAW i.e., pump frequency is comparable to the ion cyclotron frequency. We have explicitly obtained the perturbation dynamics and then examined the impact of pump magnitude on the driven magnetic turbulence using numerical simulation. The results show steepening at small scales with increasing pump amplitude. The compressibility associated with acoustic fluctuations may explain the variation in spectral scaling of solar wind turbulence as observed by Alexandrova et al. (Astrophys. J. 674:1157, 2008).