Results 1 - 10 of 49
Results 1 - 10 of 49. Search took: 0.027 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] Within this publication a detailed overview about the national and international solal't1lel1nai standards is made. The various tests are described and a cross reference list for comparing the different standards is given. Moreover a certification model is presented and the advantage of third party assessment is carried out. The requirement for a solar thermal test laboratory to conduct independent third party assessment by means of an ISO/IEC17065 accreditation is given. Finally the concept of a quality system for solar thermal markets is explained and major advantages are outlined. Solar thermal systems and their components are described in various national and international standards. In Europe the standard EN12975 defines the regulations and requirements for solar thermal collectors. The standard EN12976 is established for the evaluation of factory made solar thermal systems. The EN12977 is the state of the art standard for the evaluation of custom build systems. Nowadays in Libya the standard ISO9806 for solar collectors and the standard ISO9459 for domestic water heating systems define the regulations and requirements for solar thermal collectors and systems. In the meanwhile, empowered Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Certification Body is under construction. This body is working now to set the minimum requirements of the testing facilities of solar thermal systems. The international standard for collector testing is the ISO9806 and the standard ISO9459 Part 2, 4, 5 for domestic water heating systems. Within the year 2013 a revision of the ISO9806 will be published and, for the first time, a consistent harmonized standard for the main solar thermal markets will be set in force. Besides the various standards for solar thermal products a meaningful element for the quality assurance and the customer protection is third party certification. Third party certification involves an independent assessment, declaring that specified requirements regarding a product are fulfilled. In a certification process based on specified certification rules an authorized certification body is confirming that a solar thermal product has passed performance tests, reliability tests and further requirements according to the standards. In Europe a certification body holds an accreditation according to EN45011. At international level the standard ISO/IEC17065 is in force. Test results as a basis for product certification are determined by solar thermal test laboratories. The implementation and the business operation of such a solar thermal test laboratory is an important element within the national/regional solar thermal market. To ensure the quality of the products and to attend the role of an observer on the market, the test facility has to fulfill a number of requirements. Besides the necessary technical equipment and the implementation of tests in accordance with the various national and international standards, the laboratory shall realize a quality management system to guarantee the quality of tests and services. Based on the technical equipment, the testing scope and an implemented Quality Management System (QMS), the test laboratory can achieve an accreditation according to ISO/IEC17025 as basis for independent third party testing. Independent testing and evaluation of solar thermal collectors and components like hot water stores and controllers offers an important medium for quality assurance. To guarantee a high degree of product quality and consumer protection a quality system for the solar thermal market is necessary. Core of the quality assurance of a functioning solar thermal market are the national standards body, which is developing standards and regulations as a working basis ill technical committees, the national metrology institute that guarantees the traceability of measurements on fundamental and natural constants, and finally the national accreditation body which ensures the conformity of the various actors to a specific standard. Laboratories work closely with the certification authorities and apply the developed specific norms and standards. The certification bodies must ensure the conformance of their test laboratories with the standard ISO/IEC17025, which include the quality standard ISO 9001:2008 and also include additional requirements. The traceability of the metrics of solar thermal testing laboratories is usually made with the help of calibration laboratories that are specialized on certain measurements. Those are also accredited and ensure the traceability of their measurements to the national meteorology institute. Other stake holders are the group of importers and exporters and foreign investors who are on the national market in entrepreneurial activities, as well as the group of consumer organizations that represent the interests of customers. By means of good networking of stake holders and focusing 011 the quality process, a high-quality and flourishing solar thermal market can be created.(author)
[en] 638,4 MWe The CSP plant electrical generating capacity in the EU at the end of 2010 As could be expected, the recession cast long shadows over the European solar thermal market throughout 2010. For the second year running, new installations for hot water production and space heating (collectors) decreased. According to the EurObserv'ER survey the newly-assigned surface area was 3.8 million m2 in 2010, down from 4.2 million m2 in 2009 and 4.6 million m2 in 2008. At the same time, the European high-temperature solar sector related to electricity production has been taking shape alongside the heat-producing applications, with 638.4 MW already installed. Spain accounts for almost all of this capacity, and a further five EU countries, mostly Mediterranean, intend to develop the sector
[en] The European concentrated solar plant market is set to mark time for a year following efforts to complete construction on 350 MW of CSP capacity in Spain in 2013. The spotlight has switched to Italy which could re-launch the European market within a couple of years. The European solar thermal market for heat and hot water production and space heating, is shrinking all the time. EurObserv'ER reports that the market is in its fifth successive year of contraction in the European Union. It now posts a 10.5% decline on its 2012 performance having struggled to install just over 3 million m"2 of collectors in 2013
[en] This report presents the results of the 2018 study of the collective solar thermal market in France: 1 - Methodology; 2 - General feeling of interviewed actors; 3 - Market trends: 2017 sales evolution, activity during the first half of 2018, main obstacles to market development; 4 - Market structure: competition, distribution per market segment and type of application, the challenge of the on-line installations follow up, feeling regarding design office skills, feeling regarding dynamical implementation; 5 - Development perspectives: short and medium-term vision, reactions with respect to the 'Solar Plan', acting against the sluggish performances of the sector, the perspectives offered by the ecological taxation, efforts made on communication, large-scale installations perspective (industrial solar heating, district heating), perspectives of solar coverage rate increase, R and D actions; 6 - Public authorities action; 7 - Synthesis.
[en] The marine potential in Costa Rica was evaluated in a general way, specifically in the coastal maritime areas located between the mouth of the Rio Barranca and the northern border with Nicaragua. Within the sources of marine energies were located the wave energy, tidal energy, ocean thermal energy conversion and osmotic energy. The theoretical potential of each source was estimated, through the collection of free and freely accessible information in national and international institutions. The mathematical models were used to estimate fundamental parameters in the determination of the energy potential. The actual conditions of possible sites for a utilization were observed through field visits. The field measurements were made and a photographic record was created of the sites studied. Data management was carried out in geographic information systems (GIS), through the elaboration of maps, graphs, charts, schemes and other support elements. Remote sensing models were used as support tools used. A proposed power project was a particular source, also a more detailed estimate of the potential was realized and distribution in time. Some components of the proposed project were dimensioned basic way. The proposed methodology has incorporated the concepts obtained during the investigation, and has provided a basic analysis tool to anyone who tries to take advantage of any of the sources. The favorable aspects for a possible project with marine energies were identified mainly in small scale projects without restriction. (author)
[es]El potencial marino en Costa Rica fue evaluado de manera general, especificamente en la zona maritimo costera ubicada entre la desembocadura del Rio Barranca y la frontera norte con Nicaragua. Dentro de las fuentes de energias marinas fueron ubicadas la energia undimotriz, energia mareomotriz, energia maremotermica y energia osmotica. El potencial teorico de cada fuente fue estimado, mediante la recopilacion de informacion de libre acceso y gratuita en instituciones nacionales e internacionales. Los modelos matematicos fueron utilizados para estimar parametros fundamentales en la determinacion del potencial energetico. Las condiciones reales de posibles sitios para un aprovechamiento fueron observadas mediante visitas de campo. Las mediciones de campo fueron realizadas y un registro fotografico fue creado de los sitios estudiados. El manejo de datos fue realizado en sistemas de informacion geografica (SIG), a traves de elaboracion de mapas, graficos, cuadros, esquemas y otros elementos de apoyo. Los modelos de teledeteccion fueron utilizados como apoyo a las herramientas utilizadas. Un proyecto energetico fue propuesto de una determinada fuente, tambien una estimacion mas detallada del potencial fue realizada y la distribucion en el tiempo. Algunos componentes del proyecto propuesto fueron dimensionados de manera basica. La metodologia propuesta ha incorporado los conceptos obtenidos durante la investigacion, y ha brindado una herramienta basica de analisis a quien intenta aprovechar alguna de las fuentes. Los aspectos favorables para un posible proyecto con energias marinas fueron identificados principalmente en proyectos a pequena escala sin restriccion. (autor)
[en] The European solar thermal market is still losing pace. According to the preliminary estimates from EurObserv'ER, the solar thermal segment dedicated to heat production (domestic hot water, heating and heating networks) contracted by a further 4.6% in 2016 down to 2.6 million m2. The sector is pinning its hopes on the development of the collective solar segment that includes industrial solar heat and solar district heating to offset the under-performing individual home segment. Since 2014 European concentrated solar power capacity for producing electricity has been more or less stable. New project constructions have been a long time coming, but this could change at the end of 2017 and in 2018 essentially in Italy
[en] 27545 MWth: the EU's solar thermal base to date at the end of 2011. After two years of sharp decline, the European solar thermal market is bottoming out. The EurObserv'ER survey findings are that the installation figure fell just 1.9% in comparison with 2010, giving a newly-installed collector area of 3.7 million m"2. The concentrated solar power sector has been forging ahead alongside the heat production applications, and at the end of 2011 installed capacity passed the one gigawatt mark in Spain for the first time with 1157.2 MWe
[en] The European concentrated solar power plant market is steeling itself for tough time ahead. The number of projects under construction is a pittance compared with 2012 that was an excellent year for installations (an additional 802.5 MW of capacity recorded). This drop is the result of the moratorium on renewable energy power plants introduced by the Spanish government. The European solar thermal market is hardly any more encouraging. EurObserv'ER holds that it slipped for the fourth year in a row (it dropped 5.5% between 2011 and 2012). The newly-installed solar thermal collector surface area in the EU now stands at 3.4 million m"2, far short of its 2008 installation record of 4.6 million m"2
[en] At long last, after a sluggish decade of decline, the European Union solar thermal market for hot water production and heating applications appears to have returned to growth. According to EurObserv'ER, the 2018 European market posted a rise of some 8.4% compared to 2017, which equates to 2.2 million m2 of newly-installed surface. However, the amounts of growth vary by country and market segment. Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) is a blanket term for all the technologies that aim to convert the energy of the sun's rays into very high temperature heat. While the main use of these plants is to generate electricity, CSP can also be used to supply heating networks or be integrated into industrial processes.
[en] Solar thermal energy is no doubt the ultimate physical form for transferring heat to water without emitting greenhouse gases or pollutants. Yet in 2017 the sector struggled to survive in the hot water production and heating market. According to EurObserv'ER, the annual solar thermal collector surface area in the European Union dropped below the 2 million m2 mark, i.e. by 24.2% compared to the previous year's installed surface area. The individual national market figures vary widely, with several countries showing encouraging signs. Concentrated solar power is another way of harnessing direct sunlight. The technology consists of concentrating the sun's rays using mirrors to heat a fluid to high temperature, produce steam and thus produce electricity. The European Union's installed base has remained at almost the same level since 2014 and stood at 2 314 MW at the end of 2017. The global market whose growth has been sluggish over the past two years (110 MW in 2016 and 100 MW in 2017) should pick up speed from 2018 onwards