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[en] The European Union solar thermal market for heat, heating, and domestic hot water production held up well in 2019. Initial estimates put the total installed collector area at just under 2.3 million m2, which is a slight increase (1.5%) on its 2018 level. However, individual country situations vary, and the sector still has to reinvent itself to meet the huge challenge of climate neutrality. The term Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) covers all the technologies that aim to transform solar radiation energy into very high temperature heat to convert it into electricity. Most of the current CSP development is going on in countries and regions that offer suitably conducive sunlight conditions, such as China, India, Australia, South Africa, the Middle East, and the Maghreb. The European Union's new CSP plant installation pace slowed down considerably after an initial flurry concentrated in Spain between 2007 and 2014. In 2019, the European Union gauge moved up slightly to 2 323 MW when the eLLO project in the Pyrenees-Orientales, France, officially came on stream.
[en] School buildings differ from other types of buildings because they are where our children are educated and have the opportunity to learn how to become environmentally-aware citizens. It is therefore essential that schools set a good example regarding efficient fossil energy utilisation, pollution control, environmentally-friendly material selection, quality of life, users' comfort, etc. These experiences can serve as teaching aids for educational developments to raise awareness about different energy resources and their possible sustainable use. All European municipalities have some involvement in managing, retrofitting and/or building schools. They are also concerned about balancing the municipal budget. Some existing schools have very high energy consumption due to poor design, operation or maintenance. Such schools would clearly benefit from energy efficiency improvements. New schools, if properly designed and constructed, can achieve extremely low energy use. Hence, there are significant attractions for municipalities to opt for sustainable solutions which involve energy efficient technologies and measures. This is the challenging background which led to the production the Guide to Sustainable Energy Technologies for Schools. This guide is a decision-making tool intended for European municipalities and school managers. Its aim is to: - assist them in choosing between the energy technologies that will be used in school building or retrofitting projects, - provide them with a framework for measuring and comparing different aspects of energy performance that can be used to convince decision-makers to select sustainable energy technologies and measures. The guide is composed of three parts: - An illustrative list of sustainable energy technologies, - An introduction to energy performance indicators, - Fifteen case studies describing practical sustainable energy solutions applied to schools in seven European countries.
[en] The ocean energy sector has been a beehive of activity over the last three years with many prototypes being submerged off the British, Brittany, North Sea and Mediterranean coastlines. Tidal stream energy leads wave energy conversion and the other technologies in this ocean race. This is the first time that the sector has been specifically monitored for a regular EurObserv'ER theme-based barometer
[en] The issue of partnerships between public and private sectors is being debated in local authorities across Europe in all fields, including energy. It is clear that responses differ according to history, the traditional role of the public sector, the competencies of local authority staff, the degree of local autonomy, the level of financial resources, and whether there is an energy services market. The differences are already marked within Western Europe alone; they are even more pronounced with the entry of ten new countries into the European Union, and Europe-wide mutual aid is vital. This document gathers the presentations given at the 9. Annual Conference of Energy Cities on the topic of Local sustainable energy policies and Working in synergy with the private sector. Content: What can municipalities expect from their relations with the private sector? (Gerard Magnin); Working group 1, Performance contracting: Bulgarian municipalities use private capital for energy efficiency improvement (Kiril Vidolov); Contracting experiences in Swiss municipalities (Brigitte Dufour-Fallot, Thierry Dewarrat); Experience of contracting in the domestic sector (Tony Rose); Working group 2, Public procurement: Multi-coloured electricity (Anne Favatier); The Barcelona solar thermal ordinance: impacts in terms of market development (Toni Pujol). Working group 3, Urban planning and concessions: Influencing energy issues through urban planning (Dieter Woerner); Tendering for the supply of energy infrastructure (Edwin Van der Wel); Concessions and the guarantee of public service (Jean-Marc Revaz). Working group 4, Certificate schemes: Certificate schemes to influence RES and CHP in Wallonia (Gregoire Clerfayt); Towards white certificates in France (Francois Moisan). Working group 5, Towards practical guidelines, performance contracting: Moderator: Gerry Wardell, Dublin (IE) General advice on contracting issues (Michael Geissler); Voice from the floor (Don Lack). Working group 6, Towards practical guidelines, public procurement: General advice on purchasing electricity (Paul Isbell); General advice on influencing sustainable construction (Hauer). Working group 7, Out-sourcing awareness raising: Bringing together the local players (Michele Macaluso, Bartolomeo Sciannimanica); The municipal utility as a channel for energy advice (Vera Litzka); The 'Warm Zones' initiative (William Gillis); Working group 8, Promotion funds and schemes: Energy performance contracting to update a whole town (Ian Jarvis); The Partnership contract 'proKlima' as a model for successful cooperative climate protection (Manfred Goerg); Solar stock exchange (Bruno Bebie). A closer look at the activities of Energie-Cites (Christiane Maurer). Exchange Forum on each of the following topics: Performance contracting, Public procurement, Urban planning and concessions, Certificate schemes, Out-sourcing awareness raising, Promotion funds and schemes. Municipal buildings: Working together towards class 'A'. Public launch of Display, the Energie-Cites' European Municipal Buildings Climate Campaign, Project supported by the European Commission (DG ENV): The Display-Label (Jeremy Draper); Expectations and comments of the European Commission. European Directive Proposal on energy end-use efficiency and energy services (Gonzalo Molina-Igartua). Round table: How to achieve a successful win-win partnership with the private sector in the field of sustainable energy to the benefit of citizens and local authorities? Voice from the floor (Martin Cahn). Conclusion by the President of Energie-Cites.
[en] The research presented aims to meet the major challenges of sustainable management and rational use of energy (transport and storage of heat energy), to develop thermodynamic analysis tools and propose appropriate solutions for minimizing environmental impacts resulting from the transformation or conversion of thermal energy. The different developed themes are based on three axes. The first part concerns the development of thermodynamic analysis tools for the assessment, design and optimization of thermodynamic process transformation/conversion of thermal energy. The second part is specifically related to thermochemical transformers based on reversible solid / gas reactions, by taking into account the various scales of the process according to application objectives: choice and implementation of solid reactant, optimal configuration of S / G reactor and dynamic management of the thermochemical cycle. This approach is illustrated through various applications: pseudo-continuous production of heat and / or cold, heat or cold production with high thermal power, solar cooling for buildings, solar deep freezing, solar heat storage with high energy density and transportation of heat or cold over long distances. The last part of this work concerns the development of new thermo-hydraulic processes more specifically adapted to the thermal energy conversion into work and whose potential seems promising for applications in power generation from solar energy or ocean thermal energy, or efficient production of cold in motor vehicles. (author)
[fr]Mes travaux de recherche visent clairement a mieux repondre aux enjeux majeurs de gestion rationnelle et de maitrise de l'energie (transport et stockage de l'energie thermique) et a developper des outils d'analyse et des solutions pertinentes pour la minimisation des impacts environnementaux induits par la transformation ou la conversion de l'energie thermique. Ce memoire fait le point sur les differentes thematiques que j'ai developpees, et s'articule selon trois axes de recherche. Le premier volet concerne le developpement d'outils d'analyse thermodynamique pour la conception, l'optimisation et l'evaluation plus realiste de la qualite thermodynamique des procedes de transformation/conversion de l'energie thermique. Le second volet est lie aux problematiques specifiques des transformateurs thermochimiques en tenant compte des interactions existantes aux diverses echelles du procede en fonction d'objectifs applicatifs fixes: choix et mise en oeuvre du solide reactif, configuration optimale du reacteur et sa gestion dynamique au cours du cycle. Cette approche est illustree a travers diverses applications de finalites energetiques differentes: la production de chaleur et de froid par cycles a cascade, la production de chaleur ou de froid de forte puissance instantanee, le rafraichissement solaire pour l'habitat, la congelation solaire, le stockage de chaleur solaire de forte densite energetique et de longue duree, le transport de chaleur ou de froid a longue distance. Le dernier volet de ces travaux concerne le developpement de nouveaux procedes thermo- hydrauliques plus specifiquement adaptes a la conversion energie thermique/travail et dont le potentiel semble prometteur pour des applications de production d'electricite, a partir de l'energie solaire ou l'energie thermique des mers, ou la production performante de froid/chaleur dans les vehicules automobiles. (auteur)
[en] In France, energy consumption for heating accounts for nearly half of final energy consumption. Energy for heating still largely comes from fossil fuel sources (with more than 60% of energy for heating coming from natural gas, fuel oil and coal), making this sector a crucial battleground for de-carbonising the economy. Fuelwood, mainly used to produce heat, is currently the leading renewable energy source in France, ahead of hydropower. However, France is lagging behind on its renewable heat targets: in 2016, 20.7% of heat was produced using renewable energy sources, compared to a target of 25.5%. Renewable heat technologies are generally cost competitive with fossil fuel sources (i.e. gas and oil). Therefore, they offer a relatively low cost per ton of CO2 avoided, below that of renewable electricity sources such as wind and solar power (see the chart below). The main driver for renewable heat is the implementation of a high carbon price. The 2018 Budget Act adjusted the trajectory for the carbon component of energy taxes upwards. This component will rise to Euros 86.20 per ton of carbon in 2022, making renewable heat technologies much more competitive. Nevertheless, investment barriers persist (including a lack of information and difficulties obtaining funding). This situation warrants energy performance standards for buildings, as well as continued government incentives, notably through the Heat Fund (Fonds Chaleur) and the Energy Transition Tax Credit (Credit d'impot pour la transition ecologique, CITE), provided such incentives are targeted to the most efficient technologies
[fr]En France, la consommation de chaleur represente pres de la moitie de la consommation finale d'energie. Ce secteur est aujourd'hui encore largement carbone (le gaz, le fioul et le charbon representent plus de 60 % de la production de chaleur) et constitue donc un enjeu majeur pour la decarbonation de l'economie. Le bois energie, utilise essentiellement pour la production de chaleur, est aujourd'hui la premiere source d'energies renouvelables consommee en France, devant l'hydraulique. La France est neanmoins en retard sur ses objectifs de chaleur renouvelable: 20,7 % de la production de chaleur etait d'origine renouvelable en 2016, alors que l'objectif fixe etait de 25,5 %. Les energies renouvelables (EnR) thermiques sont en general quasiment aussi competitives que les moyens carbones de production de chaleur (gaz, petrole). Elles presentent donc un cout de la tonne de carbone evitee relativement faible et inferieur a celui des EnR electriques comme l'eolien ou le solaire (cf. graphique). La mise en place d'un prix du carbone eleve est le principal outil de soutien a la chaleur renouvelable. La hausse votee en loi de finances pour 2018 de la trajectoire de la composante carbone, qui atteindra 86,2 Euros par tonne de carbone en 2022, va ainsi nettement augmenter la competitivite des EnR thermiques. Neanmoins, la presence de barrieres a l'investissement (comme le manque d'information ou les difficultes d'acces au credit), justifie le maintien d'un soutien public notamment via le fonds chaleur et le credit d'impot transition energetique, pourvu qu'ils soient cibles sur les technologies les plus efficaces, et de normes thermiques pour les constructions