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[en] Sulfur dioxide pollutant was treated in the laboratory with hydrated lime particles having a mean diameter of 9.1 μm in a continuously operating binary fluidized bed reactor also containing inert sand particles with sizes varying from 500 to 590 μm. The influence of temperature (500, 600, 700 and 800 deg. C) on the reaction medium, of the superficial velocity of the gas (0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 m/s), and of the Ca/S molar ratio (1, 2 and 3) on the SO2 removal efficiency were investigated for an inflow gas concentration of 1000 ppm and an initially static bed height of 10.0 cm. The pollutant removal efficiency proved to depend on the temperature and the velocity of the gaseous flow and was strongly influenced by the Ca/S molar ratio. The maximum efficiency of 97.7% was achieved at a temperature of 700 deg. C, a Ca/S ratio of 3 and a velocity of 0.8 m/s. The lime particles' mean residence time was determined by an indirect method, which consisted of integrating the gas concentration curves normalized with respect to time. Based on a calculation of the critical transition velocities, it was concluded that the reactor operated in a bubbling regime under each condition investigated here
[en] We used a dense phase tower as the reactor in a novel semi-dry flue gas desulfurization process to achieve a high desulfurization efficiency of over 95% when the Ca/S molar ratio reaches 1.3. Pilot-scale experiments were conducted for choosing the parameters of the full-scale reactor. Results show that with an increase in the flue gas flow rate the rate of the pressure drop in the dense phase tower also increases, however, the rate of the temperature drop decreases in the non-load hot gas. We chose a water flow rate of 0.6 kg/min to minimize the approach to adiabatic saturation temperature difference and maximize the desulfurization efficiency. To study the flue gas characteristics under different processing parameters, we simulated the desulfurization process in the reactor. The simulated data matched very well with the experimental data. We also found that with an increase in the Ca/S molar ratio, the differences between the simulation and experimental data tend to decrease; conversely, an increase in the flue gas flow rate increases the difference; this may be associated with the surface reactions caused by collision, coalescence and fragmentation between the dispersed phases.
[en] Highlights: • Nitrile-functionalized tertiary amines physically and reversibly absorb SO2. • Tertiary alkanolamines chemically and irreversibly absorb SO2 through OH group. • SO2 absorption modes were studied by spectroscopy and computational calculations. -- Abstract: Three different types of nitrile-functionalized amines, including 3-(N,N-diethylamino)propionitrile (DEAPN), 3-(N,N-dibutylamino)propionitrile (DBAPN), and N-methyl-N,N-dipropionitrile amine (MADPN) were synthesized, and their SO2 absorption performances were evaluated and compared with those of hydroxy-functionalized amines such as N,N-diethyl-N-ethanol amine (DEEA), N,N-dibutyl-N-ethanol amine (DBEA), and N-methyl-N,N-diethanol amine (MDEA). Absorption–desorption cycle experiments clearly demonstrate that the nitrile-functionalized amines are more efficient than the hydroxy-functionalized amines in terms of absorption rate and regenerability. Computational calculations with DBEA and DBAPN revealed that DBEA bearing a hydroxyethyl group chemically interacts with SO2 through oxygen atom, forming an ionic compound with a covalently bound -OSO2− group. On the contrary, DBAPN bearing a nitrile group physically interacts with SO2 through the nitrogen and the hydrogen atoms of the two methylene groups adjacent to the amino and nitrile functionalities
[en] Highlights: • Diperiodatonickelate (IV) solution was prepared and firstly used to removal of Hg0. • Removal efficiencies of 86.2% were obtained in the presence of SO2 and NO. • The simultaneous removal mechanism of Hg0 was proposed. -- Abstract: A novel method has been developed to remove elemental mercury from simulated flue gas by a diperiodatonickelate (IV) solution. The influencing factors, such as diperiodatonickelate (IV) concentration, reaction temperature, solution pH, the initial Hg0 concentration, SO2 concentration and NO concentration were investigated at a bubbling reactor. In the presence of SO2 and NO, removal efficiency of 86.2% for elemental mercury was obtained. Meanwhile, 56.2% of NO and 98% of SO2 were simultaneously removed, under the optimal experimental conditions, in which diperiodatonickelate (IV) concentration was 6 × 10−3 mol/L, reaction temperature was 50 oC, the initial Hg0 concentration was 20 μg/m3 and pH was 8.5. Moreover, based on the research results of the hydrolyzing products of IO4−, and the analysis of the removal products of Hg0, the reaction mechanism of Hg0 removal was proposed
[en] Highlights: ► Thirty-four isolated Gram-positive bacteria could degrade wide range of aromatic pollutants. ► Nine isolates could grow in the presence of extremely high levels of heavy metals. ► Twelve isolates accumulated polyphosphate, 3 polyhydroxybutyrate, 4 exopolysaccharides. ► The incidence of multiple antibiotic resistance markers among isolates was low. - Abstract: Gram-positive bacteria from river sediments affected by the proximity of a petrochemical industrial site were isolated and characterized with respect to their ability to degrade a wide range of aromatic compounds. In this study we identified metabolically diverse Gram-positive bacteria capable of growth on wide range aromatic compounds in the presence of heavy metals and with the ability to accumulate biopolymers. Thirty-four isolates that were able to use 9 or more common aromatic pollutants, such as benzene, biphenyl, naphthalene etc. as a sole source of carbon and energy included members of Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Gordonia, Streptomyces, and Staphylococcus genus. Rhodococcus sp. TN105, Gordonia sp. TN103 and Arthrobacter sp. TN221 were identified as novel strains. Nine isolates were able to grow in the presence of one or more metals (mercury, cadmium, nickel) at high concentration (100 mM). Seven isolates could degrade 15 different aromatic compounds and could grow in the presence of one or more heavy metals. Two of these isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics including erythromycin and nalidixic acid. One third of isolates could accumulate at least one biopolymer. Twelve isolates (mainly Bacillus sp. and Arthrobacter sp.) accumulated polyphosphate, 3 Bacillus sp. accumulated polyhydroxybutyrate, while 4 isolates could accumulate exopolysaccharides.
[en] The present study attempts to generate chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas continuously by chlorate-chloride process and to utilize it further to clean up SO2 and NO x gases simultaneously from the flue gas in the lab-scale bubbling reactor. Experiments were carried out to examine the effect of various operating parameters like input SO2 concentration, input NO concentration, pH of the reaction medium, and ClO2 feeding rate on the SO2 and NO x removal efficiencies at 45 deg. C. Complete oxidation of NO into NO2 occurred on passing sufficient ClO2 gas into the scrubbing solution. SO2 removal efficiency of about 100% and NO x removal efficiency of 66-72% were achieved under optimized conditions. NO x removal efficiency decreased slightly with increasing pH and NO concentration. Input SO2 concentration had marginal catalytic effect on NO2 absorption. No improvement in the NO x removal efficiency was observed on passing excess of chlorine dioxide in the scrubbing solution
[en] Highlights: • Haloalkaliphilic microorganisms were used to reduce sulfate. • Sulfide concentration reached up to 1603 mg/L. • There was no sulfide inhibition to haloalkaliphilic microorganisms. • Bacterial community of haloalkaliphilic bioreactor was studied. - Abstract: Sulfur dioxide from flue gas was converted into sulfate after the absorption of alkaline solutions. Haloalkaliphilic microorganisms have been used in reducing sulfate to decrease expenses and avoid sulfide inhibition. The effects of different COD/SO42− ratios and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) on the sulfate removal efficiency and bacterial community were investigated in model experiments. Ethanol showed better performance as an electron donor than lactate. The optimum COD/SO42− ratio and HRT were 4.0 and 18 h, respectively, with respective sulfate removal efficiency and rate of 97.8 ± 1.11% and 6.26 ± 0.0710 g/L d. Sulfide concentrations reached 1603 ± 3.38 mg/L. Based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 16S rDNA, the major sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) was Desulfonatronovibrio sp., which was only detected at a COD/SO42− ratio of 4.0 using ethanol as an electron donor. Different HRTs had no significant effect on the band corresponding to this species. PCR results show that methane-producing archaea (MPA) were from the acetoclastic methanogenic family Methanosarcinaceae. Quantitative real-time PCR did not demonstrate any significant competition between SRB and MPA. The findings of this study indicate that sulfate reduction, nitrate reduction, and sulfide oxidization may occur in the same bioreactor
[en] Highlights: • A Rhodococcus ruber strain degraded DBP and phenol. • Degradation kinetics of DBP or phenol fit modified first-order models. • Degradation interaction between DBP and phenol was studied by strain DP-2. • The degradation genes transcriptional were quantified by RT-qPCR. - Abstract: The bacterial strain DP-2, identified as Rhodococcus ruber, is able to effectively degrade di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and phenol. Degradation kinetics of DBP and phenol at different initial concentrations revealed DBP and phenol degradation to fit modified first-order models. The half-life of DBP degradation ranged from 15.81 to 27.75 h and phenol degradation from 14.52 to 45.52 h under the initial concentrations of 600–1200 mg/L. When strain DP-2 was cultured with a mixture of DBP (800 mg/L) and phenol (700 mg/L), DBP degradation rate was found to be only slightly influenced; however, phthalic acid (PA) accumulated, and phenol degradation was clearly inhibited during synchronous degradation. Transcriptional levels of degradation genes, phenol hydroxylase (pheu) and phthalate 3,4-dioxygenase (pht), decreased significantly more during synchronous degradation than during individual degradation. Quantitative estimation of individual or synchronous degradation kinetics is essential to manage mixed hazardous compounds through biodegradation in industrial waste disposal
[en] Highlights: ► Carbonyl sulfide can be catalytic oxidized by micro-oxygen in the off-gas. ► How to use the trace oxygen for the oxidation of carbonyl sulfide was a challenge. ► The SO42− species in the adsorbent sample were generated by a catalytic oxidation process. - Abstract: Activated carbon modified with different impregnants has been studied for COS removal efficiency under micro-oxygen conditions. Activated carbon modified with Cu(NO3)2–CoPcS–KOH (denoted as Cu–Co–KW) is found to have markedly enhanced adsorption purification ability. In the adsorption purification process, the reaction temperature, oxygen concentration, and relative humidity of the gas are determined to be three crucial factors. A breakthrough of 43.34 mg COS/g adsorbent at 60 °S and 30% relative humidity with 1.0% oxygen is shown in Cu–Co–KW for removing COS. The structures of the activated carbon samples are characterized using nitrogen adsorption, and their surface chemical structures are analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Modification of Cu(NO3)2–CoPcS–KOH appears to improve the COS removal capacity significantly, during which, SO42− is presumably formed, strongly adsorbed, and present in the micropores ranging from 0.7 to 1.5 nm. TPD is used to identify the products containing sulfur species on the carbon surface, where SO2 and COS are detected in the effluent gas generated from exhausted Cu–Co–KW (denoted Cu–Co–KWE). According to the current study results, the activated carbon impregnated with Cu(NO3)2–CoPcS–KOH promises a good candidate for COS adsorbent, with the purified gas meeting requirements for desirable chemical feed stocks.
[en] Biological degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP) by Rhodococcus sp.NJUST16 in mineral salt medium was investigated in shake-flask experiments at pH of 7.0 and 30oC, over a wide range of initial TNP concentration (20-800 mg l-1). The TNP was observed to be the inhibitory compound. For the studied concentration range, Haldane's model could be fitted to the growth kinetics data well with the kinetic constants μmax = 0.2362 h-1, Ks = 9.9131 mg l-1 and Ki = 362.7411 mg l-1. Further, the variation of observed yield coefficient Y with initial TNP concentration and the decay coefficient were investigated. It is our view that the above information would be useful for modeling and designing the units treating TNP-containing wastewaters.