Results 1 - 10 of 101
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[en] Various studies have illustrated that exposure to ambient air pollution has negative impacts on health. However, little evidence exists on the effects of ambient air pollution on circulatory mortality in Xi’an, China. This study aims to investigate and ascertain the association between short-term exposure to ambient air pollutants and circulatory mortality in Xi’an, China. Daily average concentrations of PM2.5, SO2, and O3, meteorological data (temperature and relative humidity) and daily counts of circulatory mortality were obtained between January 2014 and June 2016. Mortality was stratified by gender and age group (≤ 64 years and ≥ 65 years). A generalized additive model (GAM) with natural splines (NS) was constructed to analyze the relationship between ambient air pollutants and daily circulatory mortality. There were 57,570 cases of circulatory mortality, with cerebrovascular and ischemic heart diseases accounting for 48.5% and 43.5%, respectively. All ambient air pollutants displayed different seasonal patterns. In the single pollutant model, 10 μg/m3 increase in 2-day moving average concentrations of PM2.5, SO2, and O3 was associated with relative risk of 1.288(1.198, 1.388), 1.360(0.877, 2.331), and 1.324(1.059, 1.705) in circulatory mortality, respectively. After adjusting for collinearity in the multi-pollutant model, the effects remained statistically significant. The ≥ 65 years and female sub-groups were associated with a higher risk of circulatory mortality. Short-term exposure to ambient air pollutants plays a pivotal role in the genesis of circulatory mortality in Xi’an. Responses to ambient air pollutants exposure in relation to circulatory mortality are different when analyzed by sub-groups.
[en] We performed a time series analysis to investigate the potential association between exposure to ambient air pollution and type 2 diabetes (T2D) incidence in the Chinese population. Monthly time series data between 2008 and 2015 on ambient air pollutants and incident T2D (N = 25,130) were obtained from the Environment Monitoring Center of Ningbo and the Chronic Disease Surveillance System of Ningbo. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of incident T2D per 10 μg/m3 increases in ambient air pollutants were estimated from Poisson generalized additive models. Exposure to particulate matter < 10 μm (PM10) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) was associated with increased T2D incidence. The relative risks (RRs) of each increment in 10 μg/m3 of PM10 and SO2 were 1.62 (95% CI, 1.16–2.28) and 1.63 (95% CI, 1.12–2.38) for overall participants, whereas for ozone (O3) exposure, the RRs were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.68–0.90) for overall participants, 0.78 (95% CI, 0.69–0.90) for males, and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.67–0.91) for females, respectively. Exposure to PM10 and SO2 is positively associated with T2D incidence, whereas O3 is negatively associated with T2D incidence.
[en] At many volcano observatories, measurements of the plume height are frequently applied. On the other hand, the recent development of the satellite measurements enables the monitoring of the SO2 mass emitted by the passive degassing at sufficient temporal resolution. Using these two techniques, this study focuses on the degassing activity before the 8 October 2016 phreatomagmatic eruption of Aso volcano, Japan. Here we show the temporal variations of the plume height, the SO2 mass, and ground-based SO2 flux during 6 months before the eruption. Our result shows similar temporal changes of them, especially for the maxima and the increase, respectively, in about 2 months and 6 days before the eruption. This result indicates that the degassing system had been stable during the whole study period, but the accumulation of volcanic gas in the conduit since August might trigger the phreatomagmatic eruption. These techniques can be sufficient to monitor the degassing activity and to detect its precursory change. .
[en] Recent studies have sought epidemiological evidence of the effectiveness of energy transitions. Such evidence often relies on so-called ‘natural experiments’, wherein environmental and/or health outcomes are assessed before, during, and after the transition of interest. Often, these studies attribute air pollution exposure changes—either modeled or measured—directly to the transition. We formalize a framework for separating the fractions of a given exposure change attributable to meteorological variability and emissions changes. Using this framework, we quantify relative impacts of wind variability and emissions changes from coal-fired power plants on exposure to emissions across the United States under three unique combinations of spatial-temporal and source scales. We find that the large emissions reductions achieved by United States coal-fired power plants after 2005 dominated population exposure changes. In each of the three case studies, however, we identified periods and regions in which meteorology dampened or accentuated differences in total exposure relative to exposure change expected from emissions reductions alone. The results evidence a need for separating meteorology-induced variability in exposure when attributing health impacts to specific energy transitions. (letter)
[en] Due to miscommunication during the proofing process, in 16 occasions throughout the text variables are shown in parentheses in the text, which should not be the case. As one example in the first sentence in section 4.5 “The setup allows for a direct comparison of three methods to determine the transfer velocity (k)” should read: “The setup allows for a direct comparison of three methods to determine the transfer velocity k”.
[en] The effect of HSO3− on the electrochemical migration (ECM) of Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu lead-free solder alloy under thin electrolyte layers was investigated using the thin electrolyte layer method. The results showed that the migration element of Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu alloy was Sn and the faster-growing branch of the dendrite resulted in a sharper tip during the dendrite growth process. Increasing the amount of HSO3− decreased the probability of ECM. Due to the hydrolysis of HSO3, the pH value of electrolyte in thin electrolyte layer shifted toward a strongly acidic environment and a lower pH condition was favorable for dendrite formation. However, HSO3− reacted with tin ions to form some insoluble compounds during the ECM process, resulting in a decrease of tin ion concentration under thin electrolyte layers. A protective film formed on the anode surface, thus blocking the anodic dissolution process. Possible reactions were proposed to explain the inhibitory effect of HSO3− on the ECM of Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu alloy.
[en] China’s economic boom has created many environmental and health challenges, including so-called cancer villages. This study, the first to use the lens of “cancer villages” at provincial level, examines the correlation between changes in Jiangsu cancer villages and economic and environmental quality indicators identified as being relevant, and hence to highlight environmental issues that should be mitigated to protect public health. Since 2001, 25 cancer villages have been reported in Jiangsu. The distribution pattern of these villages is of a cluster whose mean centre had moved from Suzhou city in 2001 to Taizhou in 2006 and 2011. By applying the buffer analysis tool of ArcGIS10.2.2 using 3-km and 5-km radius buffer, to examine the relationship between these cancer villages and the surrounding rivers, it was revealed that 76% of the villages fall within the 3-km buffer zone, and 88% are within the 5-km buffer zone. A fairly strong correlation between the cancer villages and annual GDP, as well as pollutant discharge, was found, with correlation coefficients of 0.94 for Jiangsu, 0.89 for Northern Jiangsu, 0.93 for Central Jiangsu, 0.83 for Southern Jiangsu and 0.64 for city level. The change of newly added cancer villages is significantly influenced by the discharge of sewage water (raising COD) and SO2, and the peak of newly added cancer villages, as well as discharge of COD and SO2 all occurred in 2005. For four cities, the total sewage water discharge and SO2 emissions are consistent with the order of the distribution density of the villages. The phenomenon of cancer villages in China will gradually be resolved as the government takes effective measures to tackle environmental issues coupled with people’s increasing environmental and health awareness.
[en] Environmental regulations affect employment through productivity output and factor substitution. This paper employs a difference-in-differences (DID) method to investigate the effect of China’s Two Control Zones (TCZ) policy on the urban employment in 287 cities from 1994 to 2009. We apply the DID method to two time points: 1998 for policy issuance and 2000 for the policy implementation. From the results of analyses on full-sample cities, the TCZ policy did not contribute to increasing total urban employment. Moreover, a negative impact on employment resulted from sulfur dioxide and acid rain controls in secondary and tertiary industries, respectively. In the acid rain control zone, the TCZ policy increased the average wage of urban workers. Negative effects on employment were observed in larger cities. The policy triggered labor migration from larger to smaller cities, resulting in significant increases in primary and tertiary industry employment in smaller cities, although the effects on mid-size cities were insignificant. This study provides important empirical evidence and insight into the impact of the TCZ policy on urban employment.
[en] In much of the industrialised world, policy interventions to address the challenges of wide-spread air pollution as resulting from development and economic progress in the 2nd half of the 20th century have overall led to reductions in air pollution levels and related health effects since the 1970s. While overall improvements towards reducing health effects from ambient air pollution are recorded, comprehensive and consistent assessments of the long-term impact of policy interventions are still scarce. In this paper, we conduct a model assessment over a 40 year period of air pollution in the UK. In order to correct for the short and longer term variability of meteorological factors contributing to trends in ambient concentrations of priority air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, fine particulate matter and ozone), we use a fixed meteorological year for all model simulations. Hence, the modelled changes in air pollutant concentrations and related health effects are solely a function of the changes in emissions since 1970. These changes in emissions are primarily driven by policy interventions, ranging from phasing out of specific fuels or substances, to regulating the use of chemicals and driving the development of cleaner, more efficient technologies. Over the 40 year period, UK attributable mortality due to exposure to PM2.5 and NO2 have declined by 56% and 44% respectively, while ozone attributable respiratory mortality increased by 17% over the same period (however, with a slight decrease by 14% between 2000 and 2010). (letter)
[en] Continuous measurements of soil CO2 flux are useful for understanding degassing processes and for monitoring volcanic activities. Recent studies at many volcanoes have revealed that soil CO2 flux variations are significantly influenced by environmental parameters as well as volcanic processes. In this study, we conducted continuous monitoring of soil CO2 flux in the flank of Nakadake cone, Aso volcano, Japan, from January 2016 to November 2017. The results of our observations during an active period before and after a large phreatomagmatic eruption on 8 October 2016 and during a calm period from 2017 showed variations in soil CO2 flux due to oscillations in environmental parameters. Excluding these variations from the raw time series by multivariate linear regression analysis, the time series of soil CO2 flux presented some anomalous peaks in both the active and calm periods. Careful comparison of the anomalous peaks with the environmental parameters revealed that most of the anomalous peaks were likely due to an increase in wind speed and/or a decrease in barometric pressure. However, the anomaly after the 8 October 2016 eruption was not completely explicable by the variations in the environmental parameters and coincided with increases in seismic amplitude and plume SO2 flux. This anomaly was possibly attributed to an increase in magmatic CO2 flux. These findings emphasized the importance of careful statistical treatment of the soil CO2 flux data after excluding the influences of the environmental parameters at each measurement site. These statistical treatments will contribute to a better understanding of the degassing processes and monitoring of volcanic activities, including phreatic or phreatomagmatic eruptions. .