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[en] Electron density was measured by Stark broadening in an ablative pulsed plasma thruster. The asymmetrical deconvolution is used to obtain Stark broadening. The result shows that the electron density in the discharge channel is 2.534x1022 m-3 when the discharge energy is 5 J and the measured electron temperature is 18 000 K, and it is in excellent agreement with other experimental and theoretical data. The electron density in the discharge channel increases very minimally with increasing discharge energy
[en] Jim Hansen, a climatologist at NASA's Goddard Space Institute, is convinced that the earth's temperature is rising and places the blame on the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Unconvinced, John Sununu, former White House chief of staff, doubts that the warming will be great enough to produce serious threat and fears that measures to reduce the emissions would throw a wrench into the gears that drive the Unites States' troubled economy. During his three years at the White House, Sununu's view prevailed, and although his role in the debate has diminished, others continue to cast doubt on the reality of global warming. A new lobbying group called the Climate Council has been created to do just this. Burning fossil fuels is not the only problem; a fifth of emissions of carbon dioxide now come from clearing and burning forests. Scientists are also tracking a host of other greenhouse gases that emanate from a variety of human activities; the warming effect of methane, chlorofluorocarbons and nitrous oxide combined equals that of carbon dioxide. Although the current warming from these gases may be difficult to detect against the background noise of natural climate variation, most climatologists are certain that as the gases continue to accumulate, increases in the earth's temperature will become evident even to skeptics. If the reality of global warming were put on trial, each side would have trouble making its case. Jim Hansen's side could not prove beyond a reasonable doubt that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have warmed the planet. But neither could John Sununu's side prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the warming expected from greenhouse gases has not occurred. To see why each side would have difficulty proving its case, this article reviews the arguments that might be presented in such a hearing
[en] It is becoming more important to measure the pressure in high temperature environments in many industrial fields. However, there is no appropriate evaluation system and compensation method for high temperature pressure sensors since most pressure standards have been established at room temperature. In order to evaluate the high temperature pressure sensors used in harsh environments, such as high temperatures above 250 deg. C, a specialized system has been constructed and evaluated in this study. The pressure standard established at room temperature is connected to a high temperature pressure sensor through a chiller. The sensor can be evaluated in conditions of changing standard pressures at constant temperatures and of changing temperatures at constant pressures. According to the evaluation conditions, two compensation methods are proposed to eliminate deviation due to sensitivity changes and nonlinear behaviors except thermal hysteresis.
[en] The structure and properties of quasicrystals are discussed. The short-and long-range atomic orders and the effect of these factors on the physical characteristics are considered. It is noted that investigations of the physical properties of quasicrystals at temperatures above room temperature should be performed. Promising applications are briefly outlined
[en] Cryogen-free operation of Josephson voltage standards requires a low-noise cryocooler that provides a cooling power of 100 mW or less at 4.2 K, and about 1 W of precooling at an intermediate temperature near 70 K. Due to its intrinsic low level of mechanical vibrations a pulse tube cooler (PTC) appears to be a suitable candidate for such an application. In this work, a two-stage pulse tube cooler has been developed and optimized for cooling of a 1 V or 10 V Josephson voltage standard near 4 K. The performance of the PTC, which is driven by a compressor with a rated input power of 1.7 kW, is optimized under three different conditions. So far, a minimum temperature of 2.66 K and a maximum cooling power of 202 mW at 4.2 K with coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.15x10-4 have been achieved. The performance of the cryocooler is expected to fully satisfy the cooling requirement of the voltage standard. In addition, the experimental results are also compared with those obtained by driving the same cooler by use of a 6 kW compressor
[en] High-temperature micro-/nanomechanics has attracted much interest over the last decade, primarily because of the urgent need to understand the mechanical and tribological properties of advanced engineering materials at micro-/nanoscale and the underlying physics controlling such properties at operationally relevant conditions. Recent years have subsequently witnessed the swift growth and development of new high-temperature micro- and nanoscratching/tribology instruments. Here, we present an overview of fundamental principles and developments in these instruments, discuss pertinent findings on the topic in detail, and outline current challenges and promising future directions in the field.
[en] We report the performance of room temperature terahertz sources based on intracavity difference-frequency generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with a dual-upper-state (DAU) active region. DAU active region design is theoretically expected to produce larger optical nonlinearity for terahertz difference-frequency generation, compared to the active region designs of the bound-to-continuum type used previously. Fabricated buried heterostructure devices with a two-section buried distributed feedback grating and the waveguide designed for Cherenkov difference-frequency phase-matching scheme operate in two single-mode mid-infrared wavelengths at 10.7 μm and 9.7 μm and produce terahertz output at 2.9 THz with mid-infrared to terahertz conversion efficiency of 0.8 mW/W"2 at room temperature
[en] We study the behavior of the two plane waves configuration in the Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrel (LOFF) phase close to T=0. The study is performed by using a Landau-Ginzburg expansion up to the eighth order in the gap. The general study of the corresponding grand potential shows, under the assumption that the eighth term in the expansion is strictly positive, the existence of two tricritical lines. This allows to understand the existence of a second tricritical point for two antipodal plane waves in the LOFF phase and justifies why the transition becomes second order at zero temperature. The general analysis done in this paper can be applied to other cases
[en] The temperature dependences of concentration and mobility are investigated in 300–700–300 K thermal cycles at different durations of low-temperature annealing of a ZnSb:0.1 at % Cu sample before the onset of every thermal cycle. Concurrently, the material is annealed for 1500 hours at a temperature difference of 310–670 K, and, then, its thermoelectric parameters are measured. The results are analyzed taking into account the features of the crystalline structure and the covalent nature of the chemical bonds in ZnSb. The operating range and lifetime of this composition are estimated on the basis of a model of the interaction of impurity defects with a decrease in their acceptor activity and an increase in the hole-scattering cross section at low temperatures.