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[en] Many years and great effort have been spent constructing the microscopic model for the room temperature multiferroic BiFeO3. However, earlier models implicitly assumed that the cycloidal wavevector was confined to one of the three-fold symmetric axes in the hexagonal plane normal to the electric polarization. Because recent measurements indicate that can be rotated by a magnetic field, it is essential to properly treat the anisotropy that confines at low fields. We propose that the anisotropy energy confines the wavevectors to the three-fold axis and within the hexagonal plane with .
[en] We have carried out a high magnetic field study on single crystalline stoichiometric , a material discussed in terms quantum criticality in itinerant ferromagnets, by means of high field resistivity experiments. Our experiments have been performed at the Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses in Toulouse, France. The resistivity of single crystalline , has been investigated in external fields up to 15.5 T aligned along the c-axis in the temperature range of 1.4–55 K. The main focus of our study lies on the method to extract TN from the magnetoresistivity measurements, because TN could not be easily observed in temperature dependent resistivity for stoichiometric .
[en] This paper presents the results of the calculation the thermal field distribution on the surface of processed partunder the influence of a moving heat source (of the low-temperature plasma). (paper)
[en] We performed 27Al-NMR measurements for the CaBe2Ge2 type single crystalline LaPd2Al2 in the temperature range from 100 K to 5 K to investigate the origin of the structural phase transition. We found that the line profile of the 27Al-NMR spectrum does not change entirely on passing through the structural phase transition at . Meanwhile, the peak position of the central line slightly change ( ppm) below 70 K, suggesting the orbital shift changes below . The present 27Al-NMR studies evidence that the local electronic state at Al site is hardly affected by the structural phase transition.
[en] In this work we discuss the low temperature (T) behavior of gauge field correlators with finite momentum (k) in a AdS4 black hole background. At low temperature, a substantial nonzero conductivity is only possible for a frequency range ω > ωg = k. This tallies with the simple fact that at least an amount of energy ωg is needed to create an excitation of momentum k. Due to the existence of this 'gap', one may expect that at the zero frequency limit the real part of momentum- dependent conductivity falls exponentially with 1/T. Using analytic methods, we found a exp(-ωc/T) falloff of the real part of conductivity with inverse temperature. Interestingly, ωg ≠ ωc. From the above results, we speculate that the 'degrees of freedom', say carriers, different than quasiparticle excitation determines conductivity at the low temperature and the low-frequency limit. Here ωc < ωg, and we may calculate their ratios analytically. We also discuss similar issues at a finite chemical potential. The situation is rather different for an extremal blackhole. A zero temperature extremal black hole does not show a sharp gap for the finite momentum excitations, and the real part of the conductivity is always nonzero for any nonzero frequency ω. However, the real part of the conductivity goes to zero at the ω→ limit. Not surprisingly, we find a power-law decay with temperature for the same quantity, as the extremal limit is approached. (author)
[en] Single- and two-step hot compression experiments were carried out on 16Cr25Ni6Mo superaustenitic stainless steel in the temperature range from 950 to 1150°C and at a strain rate of 0.1 s-1. In the two-step tests, the first pass was interrupted at a strain of 0.2; after an interpass time of 5, 20, 40, 60, or 80 s, the test was resumed. The progress of dynamic recrystallization at the interruption strain was less than 10%. The static softening in the interpass period increased with increasing deformation temperature and increasing interpass time. The static recrystallization was found to be responsible for fast static softening in the temperature range from 950 to 1050°C. However, the gentle static softening at 1100 and 1150°C was attributed to the combination of static and metadynamic recrystallizations. The correlation between calculated fractional softening and microstructural observations showed that approximately 30% of interpass softening could be attributed to the static recovery. The microstructural observations illustrated the formation of fine recrystallized grains at the grain boundaries at longer interpass time. The Avrami kinetics equation was used to establish a relationship between the fractional softening and the interpass period. The activation energy for static softening was determined as 276 kJ/mol.
[en] Thermodynamic and transport properties are reported on single crystals of the hexagonal antiferromagnet Mn3Sn grown by the Sn flux technique. Magnetization measurements reveal two magnetic phase transitions at T1 = 275 K and T2 = 200 K, below the antiferromagnetic phase transition at TN ≈ 420 K. The Hall conductivity in zero magnetic field is suppressed dramatically from 4.7 Ω-1 cm-1 to near zero below T1, coincident with the vanishing of the weak ferromagnetic moment. Finally, this illustrates that the large anomalous Hall effect arising from the Berry curvature can be switched on and off by a subtle change in the symmetry of the magnetic structure near room temperature.
[en] TmMgGaO is a quasi-two-dimensional triangular spin system with Ising anisotropy. As a sister compound of YbMgGaO, which recently was identified as a spin liquid material, it turned out to show a different magnetic ground state at low temperatures. In terms of an almost absent zero-point entropy and distinct anomalies in ac susceptibility a variety of exotic magnetically ordered multipolar phases is observed at very low temperatures. In our work, we present latest results of ac-susceptibility and vector-magnetometry experiments performed on single-crystalline TmMgGaO at lowest temperatures and up to high magnetic fields.
[en] The high temperature gas occurs behind shock or near the wall surface of vehicle in the hypersonic flight. As the temperature exceeds 2 000K, 4 000K, respectively, O2 and N2 molecules are successively dissociated. Because of variable components at different temperatures and pressures, the dissociated air is no longer a perfect gas. In this paper, a new method is developed to calculate accurate thermal physical parameters with the dissociation degree providing the thermochemical equilibrium procedure. Based on the dissociation degree, it is concluded that few numbers of equations and the solutions are easily obtained. In addition, a set of formulas relating the parameter to the dissociation degree are set up. The thermodynamic properties of dissociated air containing four-species, O2 molecule and N2 molecule, O atom and N atom, are studied with the new method, and the results are consistent with those with the traditional equilibrium constant method. It is shown that this method is reliable for solving thermal physical parameters easily and directly.
[en] Investigations of the parameters of single streamers of nanosecond frequency corona discharge, creating a voluminous low-temperature plasma in extended coaxial electrode systems, are performed. Measurements of the parameters of streamers were made by an isolated probe situated on the outer grounded electrode. Streamers were generated under the action of voltage pulses with a front of 50–300 ns, duration of 100–600 ns, and amplitude up to 100 kV at the frequency of 50–1000 Hz. The pulse voltage, the total current of the corona, current per probe, and glow in the discharge gap were recorded in the experiments. It was established that, at these parameters of pulse voltage, streamers propagate at an average strength of the electric field of 4–10 kV/cm. Increasing the pulse amplitude leads to an increase in the number of streamers hitting the probe, an increase in the average charge of the head of a streamer, and, as a consequence, an increase in the total streamer current and the energy introduced into the gas. In the intervals up to 3 cm, streamer breakdown at an average field strength of 5–10 kV/cm is possible. In longer intervals, during the buildup of voltage after generation of the main pulse, RF breakdown is observed at #0415#av ≈ 4 kV/cm.