Results 11 - 20 of 920
Results 11 - 20 of 920. Search took: 0.035 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] The protection of medical personnel in interventional radiology is an important issue of radiological protection. The irradiation of the worker is largely non-uniform, and a large part of his body is shielded by a lead apron. The estimation of effective dose (E) under these conditions is difficult and several approaches are used to estimate effective dose involving such a protective apron. This study presents a summary from an extensive series of simulations to determine scatter-dose distribution around the patient and staff effective dose from personal dosimeter readings. The influence of different parameters (like beam energy and size, patient size, irradiated region, worker position and orientation) on the staff doses has been determined. Published algorithms that combine readings of an unshielded and a shielded dosimeter to estimate effective dose have been applied and a new algorithm, that gives more accurate dose estimates for a wide range of situations was proposed. A computational approach was used to determine the dose distribution in the worker's body. The radiation transport and energy deposition was simulated using the MCNP4B code. The human bodies of the patient and radiologist were generated with the Body Builder anthropomorphic model-generating tool. The radiologist is protected with a lead apron (0.5 mm lead equivalent in the front and 0.25 mm lead equivalent in the back and sides) and a thyroid collar (0.35 mm lead equivalent). The lower-arms of the worker were folded to simulate the arms position during clinical examinations. This realistic situation of the folded arms affects the effective dose to the worker. Depending on the worker position and orientation (and of course the beam energy), the difference can go up to 25 percent. A total of 12 Hp(10) dosimeters were positioned above and under the lead apron at the neck, chest and waist levels. Extra dosimeters for the skin dose were positioned at the forehead, the forearms and the front surface of the upper legs
[en] Safety culture generally focusses on human and organisational contributions to safety performance within organisations that are characterised by a high level of risk. The term safety culture is used in different sectors. The literature distinguishes between two visions on culture and safety culture. According to the first view, culture culture is considered as an organisational tool. This view is the predominant view in the nuclear sector and postulates that the organisation can develop, assess, enhance and rectify culture by organisational actions. The second view considers safety culture as a metaphor of the organisation. It is a kind of culture of facts. Within this anthropological approach, each organisation transports values and beliefs that are partly adopted by workers. The culture is seen as a source of description and understanding. As part of a PhD study, safety culture in the nuclear sector was investigated based on an exploratory approach that is used in social sciences. In particular, the Focus Group technique was used and fieldwork was applied to two sites: a nuclear power plant in France and the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN. The different groups of players that were taken into account include workers, safety officers and managers. Current results indicate that different safety cultures group similar components, in particular regulatory, organisational, mental, relational and informal components. The specificity of a safety culture is the result of the predominance of one or two components and their ranking
[en] The water tower located at the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK•CEN was constructed in the mid-1950s. It ensures that there is sufficient pressure in the drinking water mains on the site and also serves as a physical separation between the public water supply and the SCK•CEN supply. The article describes work undertaken with respect to the renovation of the water tower.
[en] The article discusses the new strategic plan of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK•CEN. SCK•CEN's strategic plan is implemented in 2017 and addresses, among others, the role of the high-performance infrastructure and strives to a balance between fundamental science and commercial applications.
[en] The EUROTRANS project is an integrated project in the Sixth European Framework Program in the context of Partitioning and Transmutation. The objective of this project is to work towards an ETD (European Transmutation Demonstration) in a step-wise manner. The first step is to carry out an advanced design of a small-scale XT-ADS (eXperimental Transmutation in an Accelerator Driven System) for realisation in a short-term (about 10 years) as well as to accomplish a generic conceptual design of EFIT (European Facility for Industrial Transmutation) for realisation in the long-term. The MYRRHA-2005 design served as a starting basis for the XT-ADS. Many options have been revisited and the framework is now set up. While the MYRRHA-2005 design was still a conceptual design, the intention is to get at the end of the EUROTRANS project (March 2009) an advanced design of the XT-ADS, albeit a first advanced design. While the design work performed during the first years of the project (2005-2006) was mainly devoted to optimise and enhance the primary and secondary system configuration according to the suggestions and contributions of our industrial partners (Ansaldo Nucleare, Areva, Suez-Tractebel) within the DM1 (Domain 1 DESIGN), the last year work objectives mainly consisted of (1) the release of the Remote Handling Design Catalogue for XT-ADS and (2) the formulation of the specification of the experimental devices according to the XT-ADS objectives and adapted to the actual XT-ADS core and core support structure design; (3) the detailed calculations of the main XT-ADS primary and secondary system components
[en] In 2001, SCK-CEN decided to adopt and implement a practical knowledge management approach. Knowledge management activities were identified within the organisation and a co-ordinated approach to knowledge management was applied. Such an approach requires an efficient reuse of recorded knowledge and an effective transfer of the available knowledge. This approach ensures an added value to our research work and guarantees the long-term preservation of the institutional memory. Principle results and future developments regarding knowledge management at SCK-CEN are summarised
[en] Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about objectives, the work performed, the results, the next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the contractors themselves as a documentation of their progress in work and published by the Forschungsbetreuung at the GRS, (FB) (Research Coordination Department), within the framework of general informations of progress in reactor safety research. The individual reports are classified according to the research program of the safety of LWR 1977 - 1980 of the BMFT. Another table of uses the same classification system as applied in the nuclear safety index of the CEC (Commission of the European Communities) and the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development). The reports are arranged in sequence of their project numbers. (orig.)
[de]Jeder Fortschrittsbericht stellt eine Sammlung von Einzelberichten ueber Zielsetzung, durchgefuehrte Arbeiten, erzielte Ergebnisse, geplante Weiterarbeit etc. dar, die von den Auftragnehmern selbst als Dokumentation ihres Arbeitsfortschritts in einheitlicher Form erstellt und von der Forschungsbetreuung (FB) in der GRS im Rahmen der allgemeinen Information ueber die Fortschritte von Untersuchungen zur Reaktorsicherheit herausgegeben werden. Die inhaltliche Gliederung der Berichtssammlung erfolgt durch sachliche Zuordnung der Vorhaben zu den Projekten des Programms Forschung zur Sicherheit von LWR 1977 - 1980 des BMFT, ferner nach dem Klassifikationsschema der Kommission der Europaeischen Gemeinschaften (KEG), das auch den vergleichbaren regelmaessigen Veroeffentlichungen von KEG und OECD zugrunde liegt. Die Anordnung der einzelnen Berichte erfolgt nach aufsteigenden Foerderkennzeichen. (orig.)
[en] In order to prevent nuclear proliferation, nuclear fuels and other strategic materials have to be responsibly managed. Non-proliferation aims to counteract the uncontrolled proliferation of nuclear materials worldwide. SCK-CEN is developing an innovative nuclear warning system based on political and economic indicators. Such a system should allow the early detection of the development of a nuclear weapons programme.