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[en] The Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU) started global radiation (G) measurements in 1949. PAR measurements started in 1978 as part of a Nordic project. The project terminated in 1981, but the measurements continued at NMBU. We have used the data from the Nordic project’s seven stations and the long time series from NMBU to investigate the limitations of using the relative flux density method for the estimation of PAR from G. The yearly mean value of the relative flux density PAR/G at NMBU is 0.48 with a standard deviation of 0.02. The monthly mean values of PAR/G show a seasonal variation, with its maximum (0.50) in late summer and minimum in the winter months (0.45). The seasonal variation corresponds to 15% difference in relative cloud cover. Data from the original Nordic project gave the opportunity to investigate the usability of the relative flux density method in the Nordic area. The flux ratio for July was generally larger than the ratio for September or October, even though the differences are small and not statistically significant. In trying to explain this, one obvious candidate is the cloud cover. In the lack of cloud data, time records of global radiation were used to select fair weather and overcast days. For all stations, fair days show higher flux ratios and overcast days show lower flux ratios. Neglect of cloud cover may lead to an error in the calculation of PAR from the simple formula PAR = constant G of the order of 10%.
[en] This analysis of the frequency, intensity, and duration of thermal inversions is based on daily minimum (tn) and maximum (tx) temperatures recorded over 3 years at 16 pairs of data loggers located under forest cover in the Jura Mountains of France. Each pair consists of a logger located at the bottom of a depression and another located higher up either nearby (local site) or more than 40 km away (regional site). The daily frequency of inversions is maximum at local sites for tn (50%) and minimum for tx at regional sites (4%). The maximum intensity of the inversions reaches 15.1 °C for tn and 16.2 °C for tx. The average intensity is about 2 °C: 1.5 °C for tx at local sites and 2.4 °C at regional sites. The duration of inversions is generally short: 60% of them last less than a day. Of the inversions that last for more than 1 day, 15% exceed 3 days and the maximum duration observed is 22 days. The relationship between the diurnal amplitude of temperature and the frequency, intensity, and duration of inversions indicates that mesoscale atmospheric conditions directly influence inversions.
[en] The purpose was to identify some general and genotypic-specific defense responses, in order to obtain a set of candidate genes presumably involved in the resistance. The experiment was carried out in León, Spain. We have analyzed the response of three lentil genotypes to Ascochyta lentis (isolate AL 84) at transcriptomic level using the Massive Analysis of cDNA Ends (MACE) technique: the susceptible cultivar 'Lupa', the moderately resistant 'ILL5588' and the resistant wild accession 'BG 16880' (L. culinaris subsp. orientalis). MACE results yielded a total of 50,935 contigs. The average number of detected contigs in each of the six samples was approximately of 40,000. In response to Ascochyta infection, the jasmonic acid pathway and the lignin biosynthesis were up-regulated in resistant genotypes, while they were down-regulated in the susceptible one. The response to chitin, the salicylic pathway and the auxin response were activated only in the resistant L. c. culinaris genotype, while the giberellin synthesis was only induced in the susceptible L. c. culinaris cv. 'Lupa'. A set of 18 lentil gene sequences putatively involved in the response to the pathogen were validated by RT-qPCR. It can be concluded that in response to the infection by Ascochyta, the lignin biosynthesis and the JA pathway were critical for the resistance, while the giberellin synthesis seems to be related with susceptibility to the pathogen.
[en] Recent and future changes in precipitation extremes over Portugal were studied. Trends in selected precipitation indices were calculated on a seasonal scale for the period of 1950–2003. Considering the same indices, this study also assessed possible changes under future climatic conditions (2046–2065). Furthermore, trends and projections for the future were evaluated using a single/unified index of extreme precipitation susceptibility (EPSI). The results revealed statistically significant drying trends in spring, mainly in northern and central Portugal, while weak wetting trends were detected in autumn. The EPSI trends also depicted a decrease of extreme precipitation in spring over central Portugal and a slight increase in autumn over northern Portugal and nearby Lisbon. On the other hand, climate change projections revealed a decrease in precipitation, mainly over northwestern Portugal, whereas the contribution of extreme precipitation to total precipitation is expected to increase, mostly in southern Portugal. The maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD) is also projected to increase throughout Portugal. EPSI showed enhanced susceptibility for most Portuguese municipalities, which may be associated with increased vulnerability to flash floods. Climate change projections by municipality for both EPSI and CDD are an important decision support tool for civil protection and for risk management in Portugal.
[en] This is the first study to examine the existence of environmental inequality related to industrial facilities in Austria. Using distance-based methods, socioeconomic characteristics of inhabitants living in 1.0 km buffer zones around the 247 polluters registered in the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Registry are compared with those of inhabitants living elsewhere in Austria. While in Vienna no clear signs of environmental inequality can be found, in the rest of Austria people living in close vicinity to industrial sites are more often unemployed, have lower education levels and most notably, are twice as likely to be immigrants. Moreover, a logistic regression shows that the disparities concerning immigrants cannot solely be explained by other socioeconomic characteristics. The results of this study add to the evidentiary base concerning environmental justice disparities in Europe and suggests how application of distance-based methods can facilitate cross-national comparisons. (letter)
[en] The Faculty of Human Sciences and Education of Huesca preserves a remarkable collection of geological materials, mainly minerals, that belonged to Lucas Mallada and that was donated in 1925 to its predecessor institution, the Normal School of Teachers, by the heirs of this geologist. This collection has been recently inventoried and studied. An important part of the specimens are related to the work of Mallada as a member of the Geological Map Commission and come from localities where it is currently impossible to obtain samples of this type and some of them can even be considered unique. The valorization of these specimens represents a significant contribution to the history of Spanish geology and to the topographic mineralogy of our country.
[es]La Facultad de Ciencias Humanas y de la Educación de Huesca conserva una notable colección de materiales geológicos, especialmente minerales, que perteneció a Lucas Mallada y que fue donada en 1925 a su antecesora, la Escuela Normal de Maestros, por los herederos de este geólogo. Este conjunto se ha inventariado y estudiado recientemente. Una parte importante de los ejemplares presentes están relacionados con el trabajo de Mallada como miembro de la Comisión del Mapa Geológico y proceden de localidades en las que actualmente es imposible obtener muestras de este tipo e incluso algunos de ellos pueden considerarse únicos. La puesta en valor de estos ejemplares representa un aporte importante a la historia de la geología española y a la mineralogía topográfica de nuestro país.
[en] This study analyses spatial and temporal trends of precipitation and temperatures over Abruzzo Region (central Italy), using historical climatic data from a dense observation network. The results show a general, although not significant, negative trend in the regionally averaged annual precipitation (− 1.8% of the yearly mean rainfall per decade). This reduction is particularly evident in winter, especially at mountain stations (average − 3% change/decade). Despite this general decreasing trend, a partial rainfall recovery is observed after the 1980s. Furthermore, the majority of meteorological stations register a significant warming over the last 60 years, (mean annual temperature increase of + 0.15 °C/decade), which reflects a rise in both minimum and maximum temperatures, with the latter generally increasing at a faster rate. Spring and summer are the seasons which contribute most to the general temperature increase, in particular at high elevation sites, which exhibit a more pronounced warming (+ 0.24 °C/decade). However, this tendency has not been uniform over 1951–2012, but it has been characterised by a cooling phenomenon in the first 30 years (1951–1981), followed by an even stronger warming during the last three decades (1982–2012). Finally, correlations between the climatic variables and the dominant teleconnection patterns in the Mediterranean basin are analysed to identify the potential influence of large-scale atmospheric dynamics on observed trends in Abruzzo. The results highlight the dominant role of the East-Atlantic pattern on seasonal temperatures, while more spatially heterogeneous associations, depending on the complex topography of the region, are identified between winter precipitation and the North Atlantic Oscillation, East-Atlantic and East-Atlantic/Western Russian patterns.
[en] As a result of changes in seismicity in the Groningen area, a need has arisen to be able to rapidly assess and prioritize entire inventories of unreinforced masonry churches. As a part of being able to provide resource optimization to determine which structures are in most need of intervention, a multilevel methodology to assess seismic performance is presented. The process involves both data collection and vulnerability assessments. This multilevel approach involves progressive refinements to the data collected and to the complexity of the analyses conducted. Five data collection phases are used in conjunction with three progressively more complex methods for the seismic assessment. The first level of assessment uses only statistical information of the structures with information that can be obtained through desktop reviews. The second level of analysis uses key characteristics of wall thickness and height to develop simple models for each wall in each church. This level of analysis requires at least a preliminary site visit. In the third level of analysis, a more refined model of the church is developed from detailed site surveys of the structure where each wall is modelled and assessed. The process involves the assessment of the in-plane behaviour of either whole churches or single walls (global response) and the out-of-plane behaviour of single elements (local response). The study applies the approaches outlined in the NEN NPR9998 2017 combined with the Italian Standards for the cultural heritage. This paper outlines this Seismic Multilevel Assessment of Churches methodology and how it applies to an inventory of 52 unreinforced masonry churches in the Groningen area, The Netherlands.