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[en] This text is written by Engelbert Broda for a conference on the role of science in Austrian literature in the 20th century, in 1981. It is about the origin of the term ‘black hole’. According to Broda the term black hole, which is widely spread and used in the modern world of physics, originates from a story of the Viennese author Gustav Meyrink (1868-1932) called ‘die schwarze Kugel’. The story is told in this text. (nowak)
[en] The text of the Agreement of 4 July 1985 to amend the Agreement of 1 April 1981 between the Government of Spain and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Relation to Four Nuclear Facilities is reproduced in this document for the Information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 24 September 1985 pursuant to paragraph 2.
[en] This is a short biography about Paul Ehrenfest, a famous austrian physicist and student of Ludwig Boltzmann. Ehrenfest contributed important work to thermodynamics and quantum mechanics (a.o. adiabatic invariants, and the Ehrenfest theorem). Broda describes not only his scientific research but also his interaction and relation to other famous physicist of his time, like Erwin Schrödinger, Albert Einstein and others. (nowak)
[en] On 21 September 1984 the Director General received a letter dated 19 September 1984 from the Resident Representative of Greece to the Agency in the same terms as the letter and its Annex reproduced in document INFCIRC/209. That document deals with communications received from Members regarding the export of nuclear material and of certain categories of equipment and other material
[en] This engineering academic report the study of the selection and installations of sensors and detectors for fireproof doors (displacement sensors with or without material connection, strength sensors, piezo-resistive accelerometers), of the performance of tests to assess, characterize the movement, and precisely specify the conditions of use of fireproof doors within an industrial environment and under severe conditions, and of the design of an automated test bench which reproduces operations within an industrial environment in order to highlight sensitive components of fireproof doors and to study the degeneration process and errors.
[en] September marked the 30th Anniversary of the coming into force of the Convention establishing the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). A formal ceremony, attended by the King of Spain, was the highlight of the celebrations. Throughout the month, an exhibition of many of the important documents from CERN's early history (including the original Convention, kindly loaned by UNESCO, with the signatures of representatives of the twelve founding States) was presented at CERN. A concert by the Geneva Orchestre de la Suisse Romande was given in CERN's honour. An Open Day at the Laboratory drew thousands of visitors. A full day's 'history seminar' enabled a team presently working on CERN history to consult with many of the pioneers
Amendment of Article VI.A.1 of the Statute. Draft resolution proposed by Algeria, Australia, Austria, Bulgaria, Canada, China, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, the German Democratic Republic, Hungary, India, the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Ivory Coast, Japan, Mexico, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, Romania, Sri Lanka, Thailand, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America, Yugoslavia and Zaire
[en] Under the Emperor Francis Joseph (1848-1916) the natural sciences were less weIl supported in Austria than in other countries of Europe. This is explained by the fact that the German speaking middle classes accepted the preeminence of the feudal forces with their antiscientific attitude. The reason for this readiness to subordination was that those middle classes feIt threatened in their relatively favourable situation by Slavs and Latins. Francis Joseph was the typical representative of the aristocracy. Personally, he did his duty conscientiously and was not corrupt, but progressive ideas and scientific thought were alien to him. From his desk he treated Boltzmann benevolently, but he had no wish to meet personally the greatest mind of the Empire or in any respect to ask his views. Another famous subject of the Emperor, Albert Einstein, was apparently ignored altogether. The structural weakness of Austria, due to the national problems, led to immobilism in her scientific life, but also, up to a point, to tolerance. The impression of Victor Adler on Einstein is considered in this historical context. (author)
[de]Die Naturwissenschaften wurden in Österreich unter Franz Joseph (1848-1916) weniger gefördert als in anderen Staaten Europas. Dies wird darauf zurückgeführt, daß das deutschsprechende Bürgertum sich mit der Vorherrschaft der feudalen Kräfte abfand, die nicht wissenschafts-freundlich waren. Für die Bereitschaft zur Unterordnung unter die Feudalen war maßgebend, daß das deutschsprechende Bürgertum sich durch Slawen und Romanen in seiner relativen Vorzugsstellung bedroht sah. Franz Joseph war der typische Repräsentant des konservativen Feudalismus. Er war persönlich pflichtbewußt und integer, doch waren ihm fortschrittliche Gedanken und wissenschaftliche Denkweise fremd. Boltzmann behandelte er von seinem Schreibtisch aus wohlwollend, doch hegte er keinen Wunsch, den größten Geist seines Reiches persönlich kennen zu lernen oder ihn in irgendeiner Hinsicht um seine Meinung zu fragen. Von seinem Untertanen Albert Einstein, damals schon sehr berühmt, nahm Franz Joseph offenbar überhaupt kaum Notiz. Die Strukturschwäche Österreichs, die durch die nationalen Probleme bedingt war, führte in seinem wissenschaftlichen Leben zu Immobilismus, aber auch bis zu einem gewissen Grade zu Toleranz. Die Eindrücke Einsteins bei Victor Adler werden in den historischen Zusammenhang gesetzt. (author)