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[en] The EKO 4/c working group of the environmental effects and emergency preparedness programme (EKO) of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) organised a decision conference on August 30th and 31st, 1995 in Stockholm, Sweden. The meeting was designed to be attended by those responsible for planning and deciding on protective actions in the Nordic countries after a nuclear accident. Issues concerning clean-up strategies in an urban environment after a hypothetical and very severe reactor accident were discussed at the meeting. The objectives of the meeting were to provide a shared understanding between the decision makers and the radiation protection community on concerns and issues related to decision on protective actions after a nuclear accident. (6 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.)
[en] The cultivation of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) has great importance in the entire Mediterranean basin, so that the implementation of organic practices in their management directly affects the sustainability of the agricultural system. Bioindication with arthropods can help to detect the different agricultural practices. In this work, we analyse the most appropriate methodology for discriminating between management using arthropods at the taxonomic level of order, with the novelty of taking into account the weather conditions to select the sampling dates. Between 12 and 15 sampling stations (depending on the year) were selected from olive orchards belonging to organic, conventional non-tillage, and strict conventional management, being sampled by beating the canopy fortnightly in the spring-summer period of 2007, 2008 and 2009. Organic management was more abundant and richer than the rest for the three years. Most groups with significant differences in terms of relative abundance were more abundant in organic orchard, except Neuroptera. Finally, different discriminant methods were evaluated (Linear Discriminant Analysis, Multiple Discriminant Analysis, and Support Vector Machine) with several different data sets. The discriminant analysis with interannual variability reached 97.9% accuracy in differentiating between organic and non-organic management using the LDA method, considering the taxa with significant differences from the abundance, excluding pests, and using samples with more uniform and stable weather patterns (late summer. (Author)
[en] Hydrological droughts are a major risk for irrigated agriculture in many regions of the world. The aim of this article is to propose an insurance tool to help irrigators manage the risk of water scarcity in the framework of the Spanish Crop Insurance System (SCIS). Only the United States Insurance System provides this type of coverage, but has very restrictive conditions. To determine the type of insurance scheme that better fits with the SCIS and to the Spanish irrigated agriculture, an expert panel was held with the participation of all stakeholders involved in crop insurance. Following the expert panel conclusions, an hydrological drought index insurance (HDII) addressed to irrigation districts (ID) is proposed. It would compensate water deficits suffered in the whole ID. We detail the conditions that the ID should fulfill to be eligible for HDII. HDII is applied to the Bardenas Irrigation District V (ID-V) in Spain, and the hedging effectiveness of the instrument is analyzed comparing ID-V’s gross margins with and without the insurance contract. Results suggest that the proposed insurance scheme could provide an effective means of reducing farmers’ vulnerability to water shortages and there is no major impediment for it to be included as a new line in the SCIS. This type of insurance can be generalized to any ID fulfilling the conditions mentioned in this paper. (Author)
[en] The main objectives of multi-environmental trials (METs) are to assess cultivar adaptation patterns under different environmental conditions and to investigate genotype by environment (G×E) interactions. Linear mixed models (LMMs) with more complex variance-covariance structures have become recognized and widely used for analyzing METs data. Best practice in METs analysis is to carry out a comparison of competing models with different variance-covariance structures. Improperly chosen variance-covariance structures may lead to biased estimation of means resulting in incorrect conclusions. In this work we focused on adaptive response of cultivars on the environments modeled by the LMMs with different variance-covariance structures. We identified possible limitations of inference when using an inadequate variance-covariance structure. In the presented study we used the dataset on grain yield for 63 winter wheat cultivars, evaluated across 18 locations, during three growing seasons (2008/2009-2010/2011) from the Polish Post-registration Variety Testing System. For the evaluation of variance-covariance structures and the description of cultivars adaptation to environments, we calculated adjusted means for the combination of cultivar and location in models with different variance-covariance structures. We concluded that in order to fully describe cultivars adaptive patterns modelers should use the unrestricted variance-covariance structure. The restricted compound symmetry structure may interfere with proper interpretation of cultivars adaptive patterns. We found, that the factor-analytic structure is also a good tool to describe cultivars reaction on environments, and it can be successfully used in METs data after determining the optimal component number for each dataset. (Author)
[en] In 1965, the Radioprotection Service (SPR) of CEA's Marcoule center published the first general guidelines for the protection of workers from radiation. Marcoule's workers were all the more involved in radiation protection as Marcoule was the place where the first UNGG reactor with its plutonium extraction unit was built in France. As soon as 1956, the SPR was aware of the necessity to capitalize on the experience acquired in dealing with nuclear activities. The guidelines were published in the form of a binder in which pages could be added at each upgrading of the knowledge. These guidelines show at that time the necessity to spread knowledge on how to cope with radiation and to standardize and unify practices in order to built a culture of safety among workers of the nascent nuclear industry. The initial guidelines were divided into 7 topics: -) zoning according to radioactive risks, -) general recommendations for dosimetry, -) protection devices for respiratory tracts, -) standards for radioactive contamination, -) nuclear matter transport, -) packaging and disposal of radioactive waste, and -) the management of the radioactive sources. (A.C.)
[en] The personnel organization of radiation protection is one of the cornerstones for a functioning radiation protection in companies. For this reason, committee A7 of the Commission on Radiation Protection (SSK) has dealt with this topic in detail on behalf of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety.
[de]Die personelle Organisation des Strahlenschutzes ist einer der Grundpfeiler für einen funktionierenden Strahlenschutz in den Betrieben. Aus diesem Grund hat sich der Ausschuss A7 der Strahlenschutzkommission (SSK) im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums für Umwelt, Naturschutz und nukleare Sicherheit eingehend mit diesem Thema befasst.
[en] The legal framework for decommissioning of nuclear installations in Switzerland is described. By means of the examples SAPHIR and DIORIT, the interplay between planning, surveillance and waste management in the sense of an integral radiation protection is explained. (orig.)
[de]Der rechtliche Rahmen fuer einen Rueckbau kerntechnischer Anlagen in der Schweiz wird beschrieben und anhand der Beispiele SAPHIR und DIORIT das Zusammenspiel von Planung, Ueberwachung und Abfallmanagement bei der praktischen Durchfuehrung im Sinne eines ganzheitlichen Strahlenschutzes erlaeutert. (orig.)
[en] Wetting pattern enhancement is one of the goals of irrigation designers and researchers. In this study, we addressed three techniques (dual-lateral drip, intermittent flow and physical barrier methods) that change the wetting pattern of subsurface drip irrigation. To study their effect on the yield and water-use efficiency (WUE) of potatoes, field experiments were conducted for four seasons, during which the soil-water balance was continuously monitored using a set of capacitance probes. The results of the soil water patterns showed that both the dual-lateral and intermittent techniques increased lateral water movement and eliminated deep percolation, whereas the physical barrier had a limited effect on the top soil layer. The crop results indicated that the yield and WUE increased significantly in response to the application of the dual-lateral drip (up to 30%); the intermittent application also positively affected the yield (~10%) and the WUE (~14%), but these effects were not statistically significant according to the statistical model. The physical barrier showed a non-significant negative effect on the yield and WUE. These findings suggest the following recommended practices: the use of dual-lateral drip technique due to its beneficial results and its potential for increasing yields and reducing water consumption; the application of intermittent flow with more than three surges; and restricting the use of physical barriers to soils with high permeability. (Author)
[en] The IRPA13 Congress took place from 14–18 May 2012 in Glasgow, Scotland, UK, and was attended by almost 1500 radiological protection professionals. The scientific programme of the Congress was designed to capture a snapshot of the profession’s views of the current state of knowledge, and of the challenges seen for the coming years. This paper provides a summary of these results of the Congress in twelve key scientific areas that served as the structural backbone of IRPA13. (memorandum)
[en] Major nuclear accidents generate large scale crisis that may contaminate wide areas for decades. The inhabitants of these areas must then gain new knowledge and adapt their lifestyle to limit the health and social consequences of radioactivity. France developed a procedures to manage such a situation, but the communication strategies presented do not fully support neither dialogue between authorities and citizen nor the use of social Web tools. This thesis was part of the SCOPANUM (Strategies de Communication de crise en gestion Post-Accident Nucleaire via les Media Sociaux) research project, backed by a grant from CSFRS (Conseil Superieur Pour la Formation et la Recherche Strategique). It aims to assess the benefits of information-communication technologies to develop more suitable crisis communication strategies for post-nuclear-accident situations. After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, collaborative practices have emerged to collect and aggregate radiation measurements thanks to social media. The analysis of Twitter uses revealed that the diffusion of these measurements is not well adapted to the post-nuclear-accident situation. We developed a set of guidelines and a software prototype to support the re-usability of the radiation measurements that are shared on social media. Our work also focused on the practical knowledge that may help people to adapt their life in the contaminated areas. We presented several methods to support the identification and the formal representation of this knowledge using Semantic Web technologies. From these models, we built and tested Ginkgo, a mobile web application designed to support knowledge sharing and appropriation. (author)