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[en] Although intensive marine fish farming is often assumed to be eco-friendly, the associated activity can lead to chronic exposure of marine organisms to potentially toxic discharges. Moreover, despite the increasing popularity of integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA), studies of the effects of fish farm effluents are almost non-existent. In the present study, the changes in the toxic potential of effluents from five land-based marine fish farms in NW Spain subjected for different lengths of time to a biodegradation procedure (for 0, 48, 120, and 240 h) were assessed in a battery of bioassays including organisms from different trophic levels (Vibrio fischeri, Isochrysis galbana, and Paracentrotus lividus). The results of the bioassays at the different times were then considered together with farm water flow in the Potential Ecotoxic Effects Probe (PEEP) index. Despite the high volumes of effluents discharged, the generally low toxicity of the effluents hinders assessment of potentially toxic effects. However, dose–response curves and statistical analysis demonstrated the existence of toxic effects during the first five days of the biodegradation procedure, especially immediately after sampling. The proposed modification of the PEEP index better reflects the changes in toxicity over time. .
[en] In 1965, the Radioprotection Service (SPR) of CEA's Marcoule center published the first general guidelines for the protection of workers from radiation. Marcoule's workers were all the more involved in radiation protection as Marcoule was the place where the first UNGG reactor with its plutonium extraction unit was built in France. As soon as 1956, the SPR was aware of the necessity to capitalize on the experience acquired in dealing with nuclear activities. The guidelines were published in the form of a binder in which pages could be added at each upgrading of the knowledge. These guidelines show at that time the necessity to spread knowledge on how to cope with radiation and to standardize and unify practices in order to built a culture of safety among workers of the nascent nuclear industry. The initial guidelines were divided into 7 topics: -) zoning according to radioactive risks, -) general recommendations for dosimetry, -) protection devices for respiratory tracts, -) standards for radioactive contamination, -) nuclear matter transport, -) packaging and disposal of radioactive waste, and -) the management of the radioactive sources. (A.C.)
[en] Following a seismic event that occurred years ago in Central Italy, the public opinion was growing and growing a concern on the adequacy of educational buildings all across Italy. This activated several political decisions and a consequent technical effort is in progress. Technically speaking one has to manage the classical problem of retrofitting existing buildings. However, the legal environment goes across national codes, targeted guidelines and the professional need of achieving pragmatic solutions based on ethical and social acceptation schemes.This paper introduces the topic in its worldwide exception and focuses then on some operative aspects in the Italian situation. It outlines the consolidated steps along this technical process and emphasizes the weak aspects one meets when going across the designers’ reports.
[en] Aim of study: To develop a methodology to obtain knowledge in public participation processes. Area of study: Fonsagrada-Os Ancares (Spain), region located in the northern Iberian Peninsula. Material and methods: This study proposes a new method for generating questionnaire survey in participative forest plan with four stages. The validation of this method is performed in the context of a tactical sub-regional forest plan. Main results: The questionnaires based on criteria and indicators proved to be effective in obtaining key information for planning. The method used offers tools to reach the consensus on natural resource management, through the knowledge gained by selecting relevant information (preferences, opinions, and expectations) from past, present, and future forest activity, focusing on solutions to conflicts. Research highlights: The use of appropriate indicators and criteria in the planning phase allows for obtaining knowledge concerning the preferences and future challenges for forest management.
[en] In this work, isolates from pepper and zucchini were tested for pathogenicity on crops commonly cultivated in Mediterranean greenhouses. Also, morphological and growing features and mating types have been studied to find any differences linked with the plant origin and pathogenicity of each isolate. Three isolates were highly pathogenic on all cucurbitaceous and solanaceous hosts tested and caused root rot and wilting. Eggplant and pepper were moderately susceptible, while zucchini, tomato and cucumber were highly susceptible. No root rot symptoms occurred on the fabaceous plants inoculated with Phytophthora capsici, including bean and pea. Moreover, the pathogen was never reisolated from the roots of fabaceous plants. Other isolate of P. capsici was less pathogenic on cucurbitaceous and solanaceous crops, causing only slight root damages. None of the isolates tested produced chlamydospores, and all belonged to A1 mating type. These findings suggest that beans or peas may be a feasible alternative crop for those Mediterranean greenhouses with a history of root rot due to P. capsici.
[en] Highlights: • Citizen satisfaction with stakeholder activities is an important factor as regards the future participation of citizens in actions related to climate change. • The majority of citizens are dissatisfied with the actions of governments. • They are more satisfied with environmental organizations, NGOs and scientists. - Abstract: The current need to adjust to the climate change requires urgent action to be taken both by the stakeholders involved in addressing climate change and by citizens. However, in order for citizens to be able to take part in such actions directly or indirectly, they will need to have a positive perception of the relevant stakeholders, so that a mutual relationship of trust and understanding is established. The objective of this study is to examine citizen satisfaction with the actions of the stakeholders involved in climate change. The study was conducted in Greece using a structured questionnaire; 1536 questionnaires were collected from January 2014 to June 2015 and the relevant data were processed using the MUSA method (MUlticriteria Satisfaction Analysis). The results of the study show that the citizens are not particularly satisfied, mainly with the actions of the governmental authorities involved in addressing climate change. In order to motivate citizens to take part in such actions in future, the relevant governmental bodies will need to increase their involvement and substantially improve their actions regarding the reduction of pollutants from industry and business, the level of civil protection and information provision, as well as public awareness and education on climate change.
[en] Monitoring and control the hunting activity is primordial to guarantee its sustainability. However, the governmental agencies responsible to manage hunting commonly are unable to adequately do this job because the thousands of small private hunting states, associated exclusively by political-administrative criteria. In this work, we provided a new management tool through the establishment of a hunting regions system. Area of study: Castilla-La Mancha region, central Spain. Material and methods: We used a two-stage procedure to establish the environmental units than, afterwards, were characterized on a set of hunting variables. Main results: We generate a hunting regionalization with 12 hunting regions and proposed regional hunting yields for each of the hunting regions. Research highlights: The use of hunting regions will permit to define the game management practices more appropriately on a large scale, but also, will facilitate the tasks of assessment, management and monitoring of game of the number hunting states included in each hunting region.
[en] Highlights: • The article demonstrates a way to balance aggregate dredging impacts with conservation and small scale fisheries • It develops a way to integrate fisher LEK into acceptable science to enhance decision making • It explains how participatory decision making is possible with the inclusion of different stakeholders’ observations of ecological risk to enhance marine health • It critically reflects on the contradictions of the blue growth narrative and its tensions with conservation • It shows how it is possible to develop a new system of marine democracy
[en] The Faculty of Human Sciences and Education of Huesca preserves a remarkable collection of geological materials, mainly minerals, that belonged to Lucas Mallada and that was donated in 1925 to its predecessor institution, the Normal School of Teachers, by the heirs of this geologist. This collection has been recently inventoried and studied. An important part of the specimens are related to the work of Mallada as a member of the Geological Map Commission and come from localities where it is currently impossible to obtain samples of this type and some of them can even be considered unique. The valorization of these specimens represents a significant contribution to the history of Spanish geology and to the topographic mineralogy of our country.
[es]La Facultad de Ciencias Humanas y de la Educación de Huesca conserva una notable colección de materiales geológicos, especialmente minerales, que perteneció a Lucas Mallada y que fue donada en 1925 a su antecesora, la Escuela Normal de Maestros, por los herederos de este geólogo. Este conjunto se ha inventariado y estudiado recientemente. Una parte importante de los ejemplares presentes están relacionados con el trabajo de Mallada como miembro de la Comisión del Mapa Geológico y proceden de localidades en las que actualmente es imposible obtener muestras de este tipo e incluso algunos de ellos pueden considerarse únicos. La puesta en valor de estos ejemplares representa un aporte importante a la historia de la geología española y a la mineralogía topográfica de nuestro país.