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[en] The sluggish implementation of energy system transformation is causing a significant climate protection gap, so that the pressure to act to develop and establish a climate-neutral energy system is increasing. The measures formulated so far by the German government are not sufficient to make an adequate national contribution to the climate resolutions of Paris. The 2019 progress report of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology also shows a failure to meet targets at many levels. At its annual conference, the Research Association for Renewable Energies therefore discussed where the central technological and socio-economic challenges lie and what energy research can contribute to significantly increasing the speed of transformation. In the presentations collected here, the scientists show which steps are necessary to convert not only the power supply but also the mobility and heating/cooling supply sectors for buildings and industry to sustainable technologies. The opportunities offered by digitisation and questions of acceptance among the population were also addressed. The present conference proceedings summarise the results of the conference.
[de]Die schleppende Umsetzung der Energiewende verursacht eine deutliche Klimaschutzlücke, so dass der Handlungsdruck für die Entwicklung und den Aufbau eines klimaneutralen Energiesystems weiter steigt. Die bisher formulierten Maßnahmen der Bundesregierung reichen nicht aus, um einen adäquaten nationalen Beitrag für die Klimabeschlüsse von Paris zu leisten. Auch der Fortschrittsbericht 2019 des Bundeswirtschaftsministeriums zeigt auf vielen Ebenen eine Zielverfehlung. Daher diskutierte der ForschungsVerbund Erneuerbare Energien auf seiner Jahrestagung, wo die zentralen technologischen und sozio-ökonomischen Herausforderungen liegen und was die Energieforschung beitragen kann, um die Transformationsgeschwindigkeit deutlich zu erhöhen. Die Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler zeigen in den hier gesammelten Vorträgen, welche Schritte notwendig sind, um neben der Stromversorgung auch die Sektoren Mobilität sowie Wärme-/Kälte-Versorgung für Gebäude und Industrie auf nachhaltige Technologien umzustellen. Dabei wurden auch die Chancen der Digitalisierung und Akzeptanzfragen in der Bevölkerung thematisiert. Der vorliegende Tagungsband fasst die Ergebnisse der Konferenz zusammen.
[en] Nuclear institutions around the world spent significant effort to make their sites more secure, both physically and digitally. The Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK CEN is no exception to this, partly on account of the changed international context. The article discusses measures and systems to increase security at SCK CEN. In 2020, SCK CEN received official recognition from the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC) for its efforts to increase security.
[en] This activity report first presents the action context of the Commission for ethics and deontology (CED) of the IRSN (composition, operation principles and internal regulation). It proposes an overview of topics which have been addressed since the renewal of commission members (guide of analysis of bonds of interest, national charter of deontology or research professions, multiple functions of the members of IRSN scientific board, colloquium project), describes the application of the ethics and deontology charter, and the application of legal and regulatory arrangements by the IRSN, and reports the follow-up of the application of the charter for opening to society. Perspectives of action are finally stated. Appendices notably contain meeting agendas, the commission internal regulation, and the rules specified in the CED
[en] This report proposes an overview of Orano's practices of subcontracting in all its activities. It addresses the aspects related to the commissioner-supplier relationship, to the industrial policies and purchase process, to abilities and training of external interveners, to the preparation of and support to interventions, and to risk preventions. It also contains remarks made by stakeholders
[en] In Germany, approximately 650,000 to 750,000 units containing radioactive materials for scientific, medical and technical applications are shipped annually by surface, air and water transports. Legally speaking, radioactive materials are dangerous goods which can cause hazards to life, health, property and the environment as a result of faulty handling or accidents in transit. For protection against these hazards, their shipment therefore is regulated in extensive national and international rules of protection and safety. The article contains a topical review of the international and national transport regulations and codes pertaining to shipments of radioactive materials, and of the protection concepts underlying these codes so as to ensure an adequate standard of safety and security in shipping radioactive materials in national and international goods traffic. (orig.)
Report to the Parliament on France's weapon exports: Results 1998 (March 2000); Results 1999; in 2000 (3 December 2001); in 2001 (20 June 2003); in 2002 et 2003 (28 January 2005); in 2004 (December 2005); in 2006 (November 2007); in 2007 (October 2008); in 2008 (August 2009); in 2009 (August 2010); in 2010 (August 2011); 2012 (October 2012); 2013 (July 2013); 2014 (August 2014); 2015 (June 2015); 2016 (May 2016); 2017 (June 2017); 2018 (June 2018); 2019 (June 2019); 2020 (June 2020)
[en] A set of parliamentary publications proposes an overview and a discussion of France's weapon exports during the different years between 1998 and 2020, and also tables and graphs illustrating this trade and the importance of the different client countries in all continents. Each report notably recalls the backgrounds of the French weapon export policy (principles applicable to weapon management control and development, political, strategic and diplomatic aspects notably in relationship with armament control, disarmament and non proliferation issues, support to a dynamic industrial basis), describes the French weapon export control (procedures, the European code of conduct), proposes an overview of the world weapon market (evolution of main exporters and importers, issue of statistics, the French statistical methodology for a detailed follow-up), presents data regarding weapon exports for the considered period (evolutions of orders and deliveries, content of the French statement to the U N, agreements, double licenses, assessment of the application of the European code of conduct).
[en] Three annual activity reports (2017, 2018 and 2019) of the CIVEN (Committee of compensation of victims of nuclear tests) are provided. Each report analyses and comments compensation requests of the current year, and the content of the Committee sessions and of requester hearings, proposes an assessment of the CIVEN activity (origin of requests, CIVEN decisions, requested expertise, compensation propositions, number of compensated victims and compensation value, litigation about this compensation), and comments various aspects related to the committee operation (staff and budget, communication means), and the participation of the CIVEN to the CCSCEN (consultative commission for the follow-up of consequences of nuclear tests)
[en] Electrical and I and C components of German nuclear power plants are often more than 30 years in operation with high availability. This also has to be achieved for the remaining operating time of the plants according to the 13th amendment of the atomic law. The resulting challenges are extensive: plant availability is more important than ever, facing the end of nuclear energy production in 2022. The support by vendors consequently declined drastically. Plant operators take the challenge having a solid fundament: The accumulated operating experience is seldom recognized in other branches. The experts are communicating in a professional network, relevant data are available and the quality is continuously checked by authorities and consultants. Based on this, current measures are taken: analysis of degradation mechanisms, allocation to components and documentation in a central data base, appraisal of functional capability for the whole range of input and environmental conditions, definition of upgrades and rebuilds, analysis of stored components and components in decommissioning plants, and punctual modernisation measures. (orig.)
[en] In the framework of the dismantling of the BR3 pressurized water reactor, the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK CEN developed specific techniques for decontaminating reactor parts. One of those techniques is MEDOC, which stands for metal decontamination by oxidation with cerium. The MEDOC technique is based on immersing metal reactor parts in an acidic cerium bath at an elevated temperature. Cerium dissolves the contaminated surface layer via a chemical process, so that the metal is free of radioactivity. After treatment, the materials can be disposed of as scrap and recycled in the steel industry.
[en] Six months after the experimental flight with bacteria, UNamur and SCK CEN sent a cargo of rotifers from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida to the ISS. The rotifers survive in an airless space and are resistant to high doses of radiation and even dehydration. The rotifers have been circling the Earth for two weeks, which meant that they were exposed to the effects of space. After a successful flight, scientists examined the rotifers in terms of reproduction, gene expression and genome structure. It was found that the rotifers were able to repair their DNA under the influence of cosmic rays. Subsequent research will focus on the underlying mechanisms. These findings may lead, for example, to measures aimed at a more effective protection for cancer patients or occupational workers who are exposed to the negative effects of radiation during their treatment.