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[en] The objectives of this study were to characterize the heavy metal contamination status of surface soils sampled at two dredged sediment land disposal sites (the Baimao and Kongwan landfills) in Meiliang Bay, Lake Taihu, China, as well as to investigate the effect on their leaching behaviors due to acid rain. Among all the metals, only the nickel content in the Baimao landfill was higher than the Chinese reference value, and all metal contents were below the limit values for agricultural soils. The fraction distribution of metals by sequential extraction was similar at both sites. Cadmium had a relatively high proportion of exchangeable-carbonate fractions, while the other metals were mainly classified as residue fractions. The metals released from soils by simulated rainwater comprised less than 1% of the total soil metal content, and the effect of acid rain on heavy metal release from dredged sediments in land disposal sites was found to be negligible at both sites. All results indicate no environmental concern for the land disposal of dredged sediments and support the feasibility of beneficially reusing dredged sediment soils as a supplement to agricultural soils.
[en] There is global concern about acid rain and other pollution which is caused by the consumption of oil. By decreasing sulfur content in the oil, we can reduce unwanted emissions and acid rain. Shale was used which is a solid waste generated in the pyrolysis of shale, impregnated with Zn as an adsorbent which removes sulfur present in fuels from the hexane/toluene model solution. An influence of the agitation time (60–180 min), temperature (25–35 °C), adsorbent mass (0.1–0.25 g), and initial sulfur concentration (100–250 ppm) factorial 24 with three central points totaling 19 experiments was applied to investigate the effect of the variables on the efficiency of sulfur removal in fuels. The values of the parameters tested for maximum sulfur removal were obtained as follows: contact time = 180 min, temperature = 35 °C, adsorbent mass = 0.25 g, and initial sulfur concentration = 100 ppm. The mathematical model proposed with R2 99.97% satisfied the experimental data. This may provide a theoretical basis for new research and alternative uses for tailings of schist industrialization in order to evaluate its potential.
[en] Chelant-enhanced phytoextraction method has been put forward as an effective soil remediation method, whereas the heavy metal leaching could not be ignored. In this study, a cropping-leaching experiment, using soil columns, was applied to study the metal leaching variations during assisted phytoextraction of Cd- and Pb-polluted soils, using seedlings of Zea mays, applying three different chelators (EDTA, EDDS, and rhamnolipid), and artificial rainfall (acid rainfall or normal rainfall). It showed that artificial rainfall, especially artificial acid rain, after chelator application led to the increase of heavy metals in the leaching solution. EDTA increased both Cd and Pb concentrations in the leaching solution, obviously, whereas EDDS and rhamnolipid increased Cd concentration but not Pb. The amount of Cd and Pb decreased as the leaching solution increased, the patterns as well matched LRMs (linear regression models), with R-square (R2) higher than 90 and 82% for Cd and Pb, respectively. The maximum cumulative Cd and Pb in the leaching solutions were 18.44 and 16.68%, respectively, which was amended by EDTA and acid rainwater (pH 4.5), and followed by EDDS (pH 4.5), EDDS (pH 6.5), rhamnolipid (0.5 g kg−1 soil, pH 4.5), and rhamnolipid (pH 6.5).
[en] Although thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic element, little information is available on the environmental risks of Tl in agricultural soils with intensive practices, particularly nearby mining sites. Therefore, we investigated the potential release of Tl in acidic soils with intensive cultivation nearby a waste copper mining site from southern China based on its level and chemical fractions as well as simulated release under artificial acid rain. Results showed that the average Tl content was 1.31 mg/kg in the studied area, which significantly exceeds the permissible thallium value of 1 mg/kg for agricultural soil in China. Some vertical increases of soil Tl from different land uses indicate the potential transport of Tl downward to groundwater. High positive correlations between surficial soil Tl and rubidium (Rb) and copper (Cu) indicated that Tl has the lithophile and chalcophile behavior. Tl in soils is mainly entrapped in residual fraction. The exchangeable fraction of Tl in agricultural soils was less than undisturbed natural soils and copper mined soils. Additionally, the percentage of Tl release from undisturbed natural soils and soils of copper ore area was more than that from agricultural soils in simulated acid rain. Furthermore, the releases of Tl from the soils increased with the acidity of artificial acid rain. Thus, more attention must be paid to land management of this similar area to avoid the risk of Tl impact on human health.
[en] Due to humid environment and weather condition in Taiwan's island, as well as the acid rain environment resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, the concrete cask might be damaged or degraded under the effect of humid, salt, acid rain, and sulfate attack on cementitious materials. These degradation factors could influence the safety design of the long-term spent fuel storage facility. Due to the long-term decay heat of spent fuel and severe environments to be encountered, the thermo-hydro-geochemical evolution could play an important role in the safety assessment of concrete-cask storage facility. The effects of humid, salt, acid rain, and sulfate attack on the degradation of cementitious materials of concrete-cask facility in thermo-hydro-geochemical evolution under rain water quality conditions have been investigated. The results show that the main processes responsible for concrete degradation are species induced from hydrogen ion, sulfate and chloride. For most storage and disposal casks and conditions, the American Concrete Institute nuclear safety code requirements (ACI-349 Appendix A) specify a bulk-concrete shield temperature limit of 150 deg. F (65.5 deg. C). However, localized temperatures at the inner walls of the shielding casks could reach 200-300 deg. F (93-149 deg. C). Simulation of geochemical degradation reactions for 100 years of cask storage under two temperature scenarios was performed. The results indicate that the hydrogen ion, sulfate anion, and chloride do not result in the dissolution of portlandite, or formation of ettringite and Friedel's salt. Therefore, these results indicate the concrete cask may remain in a durable condition. (authors)
[en] Aerosol samples were collected at Naha, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan during July 2001 to March 2005 to elucidate the concentrations of chemical components, including 210Pb, present in air for a sub-tropical region of Japan. The NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ and Ca2+ concentrations had clear seasonal variations and were high in winter to spring and low in summer. 210Pb concentrations ranged from 0.10 to 1.52 mBq m-3 and were low in summer and high in the other three seasons. The source of sulfur compounds in the aerosol samples was clarified by combining the sulfur isotope ratio δ34S and 210Pb concentrations. The multi-isotope method using δ34S and 210Pb concentrations was judged to be a good tool for understanding the transported sulfur source. (author)