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[en] This new edition of the Nuclear Law Bulletin Index covers the first 103 issues of the Nuclear Law Bulletin (NLB). By established practice, the plan of the Index is not a replica of the Bulletin, as it was considered more useful for research purposes to group together all the information concerning legislative and regulatory activities, case law and bilateral agreements and to classify this information by country. Following classification by country, references to the work of international organisations, multilateral agreements, studies and articles are set out in separate sections. The 'Bibliography and News Briefs' section is omitted from the Index. A separate chapter of the Index has been devoted to the listing of the instruments published in the Supplements to the Bulletin, or in the Chapter 'Texts' from past Bulletins, up until the present date. Each item in the Index is followed by a reference to the relevant Bulletin. Legislative and regulatory texts, as well as agreements reproduced in the Bulletins or their Supplements, are also referenced
[en] This performance agreement published by the Swiss Confederation presents the agreement made between the Board Governors of the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI and the management of the ENSI Inspectorate. The agreement includes the strategic goals to be aimed for, including eight detailed goals concerning the technical forum and response to emergencies as well as communication. Further aims defined concern periodical safety reviews, technical updates, the decommissioning of the Muehleberg nuclear plant, earthquake-related issues and deep geological depositories. Aims concerning operational surveillance and management are examined. Finally, financing is briefly examined.
[en] Service behavior is defined generally as service behavior that refers to official job descriptions, service scripts, and completes core service tasks using standard service procedures. Evaluation of the behavior of service officers has the opportunity to trigger continuous improvement in service quality to improve organizational performance-primary data from 73 questionnaires, which are the result of customer satisfaction assessment of nuclear mineral technology services. Data analysis used descriptive frequency statistics that provide a typical condition of the diversity of data. The behavioral evaluation results show that service personnel is polite, not selective; all customers have the same position, officers complete services according to the agreed period, officers complete services following service requirements. This research provides evidence that uncertainty in serving customers requires front line employees to take personal initiative to anticipate customer needs, prevent and eliminate potential obstacles in service delivery, and continuously identify new opportunities to improve service quality. (author)
[en] This directive published by the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI describes the mandate received from the Swiss Federal Government for the period 2020-2023. After an introductory chapter on the scope of the work to be carried out by the inspectorate, its responsibilities and the associated boards and committees, the current situation is reviewed. Apart from the safe operation of nuclear facilities, the safe disposal of radioactive wastes is to be monitored by ENSI. The strategical aims of the monitoring activities also concern the decommissioning of nuclear plant, radiation protection, emergency measures, information and communication as well as personnel and finance policy. The financial framework of the ENSI is briefly looked at.
[en] The use of ionizing radiation in Africa is more than a century old but the awareness for radiation safety regulation is still work in progress. The nuclear weapon tests carried out in the Sahara Desert during the early 1960’s and the resultant radiation fallout that drifted into West Africa with the north-easterly winds provided the first organized response to the hazards of ionizing radiation in Nigeria. The Nigerian Government in 1964 established the Federal Radiation Protection Service (FRPS) at the Physics Department of the University of Ibadan but without the force of law. In 1971, draft legislation on Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection was submitted to Government for consideration and promulgation. It never went beyond a draft until June 1995 only after IAEA intervention! The April 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident unfortunately did not provoke as much reaction from African countries, probably because of geography and climate: Africa is far from Ukraine and in April the winds blow from SW-NE, unlike if it had happened in December when the wind direction would have been NE-SW and Africa would have been greatly impacted with little or no radiation safety infrastructure to detect the radiation fallout or to respond to it; and weak economic infrastructure to mitigate the economic impact of such radioactive deposits on agriculture and human health. Africa was shielded by both geography and climate; but not for long. By 1988, some unscrupulous businessmen exported to Nigeria and to several African countries radiation contaminated beef and dairy products which were meant for destruction in Europe. This led to the establishment of laboratories in several African countries for the monitoring of radiation contamination of imported foods. Fortunately, the international response to the Chernobyl accident was swift and beneficial to Africa and largely spurred the establishment of radiation safety infrastructure in most if not all African Member States. Notably amongst the IAEA interventions towards the establishment of radiation safety infrastructure are the RAPAT missions and the Model Project on “Strengthening Radiation Protection Infrastructure”. The Model Project (1994-2004) aimed at assisting Member States in meeting the requirements of the international basic safety standards. The Model Project achieved a lot but its closure in 2004 compelled regulatory bodies in the Africa to search for alternative mechanism for building on the success of the Model Project and find ways and means of expanding the scope of the Model Project but without the sole sponsorship of or promotion by the Agency by taking ownership of radiation safety infrastructure in their countries. This resolution led to several discussions and consultations among regulatory bodies in the region which culminated in 2009 into the formation of the Forum of Nuclear Regulatory Authorities in Africa. The IAEA RASSIA Missions and the IRRS Missions provide the opportunity to peer-review the radiation safety infrastructure and promote continuous improvement. The ultimate goal of all these efforts is the emplacement of a sustainable radiation safety culture, which is a fabric that can be woven with different fibres: legislation, institutions, manpower, national and international support, etc. Development of radiation safety infrastructure in Africa and indeed the evolution of the radiation safety culture in the region is indeed work in progress. (author)
[en] The tool presented in the paper is recommended to support regulatory oversight of the safety culture in German nuclear power plants taking into account the particular challenges of the post-Fukushima decision to phase out civil nuclear energy production. The tool is based on empirical research findings on how observable actions and measures of leadership (e.g. clear instructions regarding the priority of safety) influence directly unobservable psychological drivers of human action (e.g. personnel’s motivation to act safely) and personnel’s observable safe performance which depends on these drivers. These empirical research findings thus capture how this kind of observable leadership activities will foster unobservable and observable aspects of safety culture and safety-directed human action. The tool supports inspectors’ collection, processing, and evaluation of information about this kind of observable leadership activities at the licensee’s. In total, 17 activities are considered which cover the entire range of leadership. The evaluation of collected information with the tool shows to which extent leadership fosters safety culture in the licensee organization and its members and, consequently, to which extent the safety culture of the licensee is a strong one. The tool is designed in such a way that it supports information collection during any kind of inspection on site and by inspectors after the familiarization which is necessary in order to use the tool (“en-passant approach”). Since many inspections are carried out in the course of time, the en-passant tool application can provide regulatory authorities with a steady flow of up-to date information which can comprise early indications of degradations in the area of safety culture. The tool does also support in-depth investigations and evaluations of licensee’s safety culture by inspector teams which comprise experts in the area of safety culture. For both enpassant approach and in-depth analyses, the tool provides proper guidance. (author)
[en] The main objective of the article is to discuss and to argue about transfer from a specific industrial sector to another industrial sector, of lessons learned from accidents. It addresses the following questions: why, what, and how can we better capitalise and use lessons learned from accidents? Attempts of responses will be achieved, firstly through the discussion of some theoretical foundations such as recurring accident patterns whatever the sectors, failures to learn shown by recurrence of similar events, the possibility of capitalising lessons into a knowledge and culture of accidents such as pathogenic organisational factors, and also with the methodological lessons of investigations that helped the development of organisational analysis. Secondly on the challenge of use, some examples of application cases in normal operation for the assessment conducted by IRSN of safety management practices in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) are provided. Finally, the rationale for using the lessons is stressed with notions as “royal road” and “gift of failure”, and some perspectives and barriers in theory and practice about these transfers are discussed. (author)
[en] Since the 12th Five-Year Plan, China has continuously strengthened capacity building of nuclear safety supervision and management, and nuclear safety supervision and management ability gradually increases. At present, the adjustment and optimization of economic structure leads to rapid development of nuclear energy and nuclear technology utilization business, the tasks of nuclear safety supervision and management are increasingly heavy, and the requirements of nuclear safety supervision and management are more and more strict, as a result, current capabilities of supervision and management are difficult to well adapt to new age demands of supervision and management. This study firstly puts forward the connotation of capacity building of nuclear safety supervision and management, and based on the connotation brings forward the basic framework of capacity building of nuclear safety supervision and management, which is composed of institution building, agency building, equipment building and team building. Under the perspective of the basic framework, this study analyses the status quo of capacity building of national nuclear safety supervision and management, states the main ideas and directions of capacity building of nuclear safety supervision and management in the near future, and proposes some suggestions for strengthening capacity building of national nuclear safety supervision and management. (authors)
[en] Human factors play an inevitable role in maintenance activities, and the occurrence of Human Errors (HEs) affects system reliability and safety, equipment performance and economic results. The high HE rate increased researchers’ attention towards Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) and HE assessment approaches. In these approaches, various environmental and individual factors influence the performance of maintenance operators affecting Human Error Probability (HEP) with a consequent variability in the success of intervention. However, a deep analysis of such factors in the maintenance field, often called Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs), is still missing. This has led the authors to systematically evaluate the literature on Human Error in Maintenance (HEM) and on the PSFs, in order to provide a shared PSF taxonomy. A Systematic Literature Review (SLR) was conducted to identify and select peer-reviewed papers that provided evidence on the relationship between maintenance activities and human performance. The obtained results provided a wide overview in the field of interest, shedding light on three main research areas of investigation: methodologies for human error analysis in maintenance, performance shaping factors and maintenance error consequences. In particular, papers belonging to the area of PSFs were analysed in-depth in order to identify and classify the PSFs, with the aim of achieving the PSF taxonomy for maintenance activities. The effects of each PSF on human reliability were defined and detailed. Findings: A total of 63 studies were selected and then analysed through a systematic methodology. 46% of these studies presented a qualitative/quantitative assessment of PSFs through application in different maintenance activities. Starting from the findings of the aforementioned papers, a PSF taxonomy specific for maintenance activities was proposed. This taxonomy represents an important contribution for researchers and practitioners towards the improvement of HRA methods and their applications in industrial maintenance.The analysis outlines the relevance of considering HEM because different error types occur during the maintenance process with non-negligible effects on the system. Despite a growing interest in HE assessment in maintenance, a deep analysis of PSFs in this field and a shared PSF taxonomy are missing. This paper fills the gap in the literature with the creation of a PSF taxonomy in industrial maintenance. The proposed taxonomy is a valuable contribution for growing the awareness of researchers and practitioners about factors influencing maintainers’ performance.
[en] Young drivers have the lowest rate of seat belt use among all age groups. The objective of this study was to investigate and assess the seat belt use behavior of young drivers by means of various methods, including observational surveys, short interviews, and self-report questionnaire surveys. The results revealed that approximately two-thirds of young drivers wear seat belts. The self-reported rates of seat belt use were slightly higher than the seat belt usage rates obtained from the observational data. The results also showed that young passengers had a much lower rate of seat belt use compared to young drivers and elderly passengers. The logistic regression model for the observational data revealed that male drivers, SUV drivers, and subjects driving at night had a higher probability of driving without a seat belt. The results of the questionnaire surveys were consistent with the results of the observational surveys. The questionnaire surveys revealed that the reasons for wearing seat belts included safety, fear of getting a traffic citation, and obedience to traffic law. The main reasons for not using seat belts included discomfort and not believing that seat belts could save lives. The logistic regression model for the questionnaire data showed that drivers who believe that seat belts can save lives and drivers who attended a prior seat belt safety campaign had a higher probability of using seat belts while driving. The results will help policymakers to develop strategies that enforce and promote safer behaviors for this age group.